Happiness Fall 2017 Argyle Update Project

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Argyle update project

The goal of this optional research exercise is to find recent happiness research on some of the areas reported by Argyle in order to update and confirm or revise his 2003 report.

Report up to three findings by copying and pasting the following template in the appropriate subsection below:

Topic of research:
Summary of findings:
Link to article or resource:
Your name:

Arglyle, "Causes and Correlates of Happiness"

  • Age
Topic of research: Age & Happiness
Summary of findings:An analysis of happiness and age finds that the graphical representation of age and level of happiness would look like a “U-bend.” As both the young and old report higher levels of happiness and the middle age people and Twentysomethings report lower levels.
Link to article or resource: http://www.economist.com/node/17722567
Your name: Nicole Rogers

  • Education
  • Social Status
  • Income
Topic of research: Income on Happiness
Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton, High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being, PNAS 2010 107 (38) 16489-16493; published ahead of print September 7, 2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1011492107.
Summary of findings: Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience—the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of well-being. We report an analysis of more than 450,000 responses to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, a daily survey of 1,000 US residents conducted by the Gallup Organization. We find that emotional well-being (measured by questions about emotional experiences yesterday) and life evaluation (measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale) have different correlates. Income and education are more closely related to life evaluation, but health, care giving, loneliness, and smoking are relatively stronger predictors of daily emotions. When plotted against log income, life evaluation rises steadily. Emotional well-being also rises with log income, but there is no further progress beyond an annual income of ~$75,000. Low income exacerbates the emotional pain associated with such misfortunes as divorce, ill health, and being alone. We conclude that high income buys life satisfaction but not happiness, and that low income is associated both with low life evaluation and low emotional well-being.
Link to article or resource: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/38/16489.full
Your name: Molly Boca

Topic of research: Income on Happiness
Summary of findings: This study took employees from a company and recorded their happiness before and after they spent their bonuses how they wanted to. For those employees that spent the money only on themselves the actually experienced less happiness than those people that spent money on prosocial activities/spread the wealth.
Link to article or resource: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lara_Aknin/publication/5494996_Spending_Money_on_Others_Promotes_Happiness/links/0c960536bc4c368a69000000.pdf
Your name: Molly Boca

Topic of research: Happiness, Age, & Income
Summary of findings: A higher income tends to increase the happiness of young adults, more-so than it does for elderly people.
Link to article or resource: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X10001431
Your name: Anna Wodarz

  • Marriage & Children
Topic of research: Income's effect on life happiness and state happiness.
Deaton A, Stone AA. Evaluative and hedonic wellbeing among those with and without children at home. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014;111(4):1328-1333. doi:10.1073/pnas.1311600111.
Summary of findings: Most people think of their children as making their lives better. Yet many studies have found that those without children value their lives more than those with children. We also find a (small) negative effect, but only once we take into account that people with children have more favorable circumstances that predispose them to have better lives. Parents also experience more daily joy and more daily stress than nonparents. Interpreting such results requires that we think about who chooses to be a parent. If parents choose to be parents, and nonparents choose to be nonparents, there is no reason to expect that one group will be better or worse off than the other once other circumstances are controlled.
Link to article or resource: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2944762/
Your name: Bridger Scholten

Topic of research: Age of Marriage & Happiness
Ross Douthat, "Late Marriage and Its Consequences" NYT
Summary of findings: Beginning with a discussion of the implications of the “Great Crossover” – the average age of having your first child now precedes the average age of marriage – which has altogether poor happiness effects for children (as children born to unmarried parents are more likely to suffer “emotionally, academically, and financially”). Further finding that although marriages formed later in life have smaller divorce rates (and women who marry later often earn up to $15,000 more a year), women who marry at age 24-26 are more likely to describe their marriage as “very happy.” To boot, these studies found that Twentysomethings who are unmarried are “more likely to drink to excess, to be depressed, and to report lower levels of happiness with their lives” compared to married Twentysomethings.
Link to article or resource: https://douthat.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/22/late-marriage-and-its-consequences/?mcubz=0 http://nationalmarriageproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/KnotYet-FinalForWeb.pdf
Your name: Nicole Rogers

Topic of research: Marriage & Life Happiness
Summary of findings: A yearly study of 10,000 adults from 1981 through 2008 finds that marriage doesn’t make people happier, but seems to “safeguard” against declines in happiness. Becoming a parent seems to reap similar results as people have higher state happiness in the time surrounding the child’s birth then seem to return to their baseline.
Link to article or resource: https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/are_married_people_happier
Your name: Nicole Rogers

  • Ethnicity
  • Employment
  • Leisure
Topic of research: Leisure & Happiness -- Transcultural
Summary of Findings: Leisure is incredibly important to happiness, but not because of the leisure itself, but the aspects that are normally associated with leisure activities (quality time with friends, self-fulfillment, etc).
Link to article or resource: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/1497149520/fulltextPDF/7EF7408CCA1F423BPQ/1?accountid=1557 - Titled: “ Happiness and Leisure Across Countries: Evidence from International Survey Data”
Your name: Anna Wodarz

Topic of research: Leisure & Happiness & Older Adults
Summary of Findings: This article looked at subjective well being in association with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB). Participants that engaged in higher frequency of leisure activities reported a higher subjective well being, especially in leisure activities related to walking, gardening, group exercise, TV watching, and social chatting. It is reported in the discussion section that this research should be replicated for greater analysis.
Link to article or resource: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/1793529767/647146291E4540E9PQ/1?accountid=1557
Your name: Paul Leonetti

  • Religion
  • Life Events
Topic of research: Life Events and Happiness
Summary of findings: "Evolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables" This research found that, "increase fruit and vegetable consumption was predictive of increased happiness, life satisfaction, and well-being." Results from the study found that the participants, "were up to 0.24 life-satisfaction (for an increase of 8 portions a day), which is equal in size to the psychological condition gain of moving from unemployment to employment. Improvements occurred within 24 months." Eat your fruits and veggies people!
Link to article or resource: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/1813031803/fulltextPDF/665E9E987335433CPQ/1?accountid=1557
Your name: Paul Leonetti

  • Intercultural Issues


Topic of research: Income and Happiness
Summary of findings: This study examines the relationships between income, work, and happiness in China, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea. The results of this study show that working hours are negatively associated with happiness in China, Japan and Taiwan, but not in South Korea. Also, relative income is significantly associated with happiness in all four countries, but it only mediates the association between working hours and happiness in China. This study and the results suggest that consideration of economic and labour policies are critical to promote the happiness of East Asian workers.
Link to article or resource: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=32&sid=da8f5d6d-797f-462a-aa39-b239ffe8fdea%40sessionmgr102
Your name: Allana Platt

Topic of research: Gender and Culture on Happiness
Summary of findings: This study uses survey data from adolescents (N = 1,428) in Hong Kong to test the association of gender with happiness and life satisfaction through relationship style and self-concept. While self-esteem and purpose in life are associated with higher happiness and life satisfaction, having more close friends is related to higher happiness, but not necessarily life satisfaction. On the other hand, boys with higher academic achievement are happier, but not more satisfied; the opposite holds true for girls. Our results provide a much-needed investigation of the differential effect of gender on the subjective well-being of adolescents. Contributing to the theoretical debate about the concepts of subjective well-being, we argue that happiness and life satisfaction are empirically and conceptually distinct. Life satisfaction might be characterized by more profound enjoyment and achievement in life than happiness.
Link to article or resource: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1758095180?accountid=1557&rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo
Your name: Molly Boca

Topic of research: Education Effect on Happiness in Hong Kong
Chen, W. (2012). How education enhances happiness: Comparison of mediating factors in four east asian countries. Social Indicators Research, 106(1), 117-131. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9798-5
Summary of findings: People who receive more education have greater social networks and greater involvement, which leads to greater happiness. This data was found from East Asian country's survey data.
Link to article or resource: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/918771193?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=1557
Your name: Sophie Anton

  • State Happiness and Life Happiness
Topic of research: Happiness and Success
Lyubomirsky, Sonja; King, Laura; Diener, Ed. "The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success?" Psych Bulletin 2005
Summary of findings: Happiness is positively correlated with indicators of superior mental and physical health. Happiness, as well as the experience of frequent positive affect, likely plays a role in health through its effects on social relationships, healthy behavior, stress, accident and suicide rates. Happy people appear to be more successful than their less happy peers in the three primary life domains: work, relationships, and health.
Link to article or resource: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/bul-1316803.pdf
Your name:Caitlin Miller

Topic of research: Happiness and Income
Summary of findings: Results from this study found and reaffirm that a person's happiness increases when their income becomes larger than the average income of other individuals in a group (a reference group). And a person's happiness decreases when the average income of a reference group increases in comparison to theirs. Comparison income can have a negative effect on an individuals happiness.
Link to article or resource: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/1810721588/AB2A446429264C8BPQ/1?accountid=1557
Your name: Paul Leonetti

Topic of research: Size of Government and Happiness
Summary of findings: This article includes research about how government size and efficiency relate to individuals life satisfaction. The research shows that there was higher life satisfaction in nations with high quality small governments. The research suggests that this is because neoliberals find welfare spending wasteful and excessive regulations are harmful to citizens. Government size was “measured by general government consumption spending as a percentage of GDP” (Bjornskov). The article also includes research results from trying to find the optimal government size. One study found that per capita government consumption expenditure against GDP should be between $1,105 to $3,650, or 5.6 and 18.6%.
Link to article or resource: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=948dbc30-e4c6-466b-bd4b-4bd0d6a4d6a4%40sessionmgr120
Your name: Lauren Olson

Topic of research: Leisure(yoga) and Happiness
Summary of findings: This compares yoga practitioners and college students self reported results from a BMS instrument that included 44 questions split into three sections, body, mind, and spirit. ”In summary, more yoga practitioners than college students reported that they had a strong sense of morals/values and that they more often expressed their feelings with others. However, college students were more likely than yoga practitioners to report that they often/always maintained stability in their life in a healthy way, or that they were tolerant of others.”
Link to article: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/850724107?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=1557
Your name: Lauren Olson

Topic of research: Religion and Happiness
Summary of findings: This article looks into happiness and religious attendance. It also looks at stress buffering effect of religious attendance. The research found that “although the effect size is relatively small, religious attendance is associated with a higher level of happiness in South Korea. However, this positive effect holds only for women and only for Protestants.” (Jung)
Link to Article: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/1550071538?accountid=1557&rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo
Your name: Lauren Olson

Topic of research: Income and happiness
Summary of findings: This study was a reexamination on previous findings that suggest money buys little happiness. The study showed that there are many other variables that need to be factored, including: extraversion, relative income, adaptation, working hours, and time spent away from home. The premise was that there is not a causal relationship between income and happiness because of all the variables.
Link to article or resource: https://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/discussionpapers/2009/0902.pdf
Your name: Audrey Murray

Topic of research: Wealth and happiness
Summary of findings: This study looks at whether increasing the wealth of all improves happiness. They predicted that the short-term effect of happiness will be much higher than the long term effect. They also found that correlations between income and happiness are greater in poor nations and almost nonexistent in rich nations.
Link to article or resource: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1024790530822
Your name: Audrey Murray

Topic of research: Self-esteem and happiness
Summary of findings: The study looked at whether self-esteem has a strong relationship with happiness. They found that people with low self-esteem are more likely to be depressed. They also found that the only way to measure happiness is from self-report and that people with high self-esteem report being happier. High self-esteem is the strongest predictor of life satisfaction.
Link to article or resource: http://people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/selfesteembaumeister.pdf
Your name: Audrey Murray

Topic of research: Religion and Happiness
Summary of findings: The study seemed to have a similar conclusion to Argyle's. The greater the participation in church and religious activities, the higher the rate of self proclaimed happiness. It suggests the positive correlation between religion and happiness stemming from the companionship, values, and goals that come from religious interaction.
Link to article or resource: http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=f421b9ee-f777-45c1-9924-79bb3ec5f3d1%40sessionmgr4006
Your name: Colton Cavey

Topic of Research: Age and Happiness
Summary of Findings: The in depth study came to the general consensus that different ages do experience different levels of happiness. On a general level, the correlation is that the older you are the happier you are. However, there seems to be a spike in happiness near your 20's and decrease in your happiness around your 80's. The article provides very specific data on the correlation.
Link to article or resource: http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&sid=f421b9ee-f777-45c1-9924-79bb3ec5f3d1%40sessionmgr4006
Your name: Colton Cavey

Topic of research: Marriage and Happiness
Summary of findings: This research examines the correlation of marriage and happiness across different nations. The discussion highlights the positive correlation of marriage and happiness, but also focuses on the specifics of that correlation and how it applies to each gender in relation to the spouse and the family as a whole.
Link to article or resource: http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=f421b9ee-f777-45c1-9924-79bb3ec5f3d1%40sessionmgr4006
Your name: Colton Cavey

Topic of research: Partner/Children (Family) and Happiness
Summary of findings: This study found 4 distinct conclusions. It found that being in a partnership has a distinct positive impact on happiness. A first born child increases well-being especially for males if their first born is also a male. Additional children after the first have negative effects on the well-being of females and no effect for males. The last finding was that the subjective well-being of males and females from the age of 50-70 are not significantly different whether they had any children.
Link to article or resource: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=2fe7b77d-b4a9-41b2-b586-22a58fbebc0f%40sessionmgr4009
Your name: Emma Baldwin

Topic of research: Happiness and Employment (Self-Employed vs. Wage-Earners)
Summary of findings: This study used six indicators to find if the well-being of the self-employed is greater than that of wage-earners. The six indicators included job satisfaction, life satisfaction, stress of job, mental strain of job, mental health problems and poor general health. The study found that the self-employed had a higher job satisfaction and life satisfaction, but also found evidence that self-employment causes more mental health problems and that they see their job as less mentally straining.
Link to article or resource: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0148296313002634/1-s2.0-S0148296313002634-main.pdf?_tid=8fc54986-a18c-11e7-8af0-00000aacb361&acdnat=1506301254_0075bbf1c57a93a3e257a86bb73450a5
Your name: Emma Baldwin

Topic of research: Education and Happiness
Summary of findings: This study looked at indirect and direct effects of education on happiness in Spain. The indirect affects include the fact that higher income and labor status through education has positive influences on happiness. Overall the study found that education does has a direct positive impact on happiness due to the "self-confidence" or "self-estimation" effect from becoming more knowledgeable. They also found that the direct effects of education on happiness are not dependent on the level of education from primary, secondary, or tertiary.
Link to article or resource: https://search.proquest.com/pqrl/docview/1022373273/fulltextPDF/64F1796D44A04EA7PQ/2?accountid=1557
Your name: Emma Baldwin

Topic of research: Education and Happiness
Summary of findings: This study found that those with a higher level of education achieve a higher level of happiness, but in an indirect manner. It's been shown that having a higher level of education keeps you connected with the world around you, which is a driving factor in happiness. Also, education facilitates happiness, because individuals who are capable of determining their own commitments are more likely to live happy and flourishing lives.
Link to article or resource: https://search-proquest-com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/docview/918771193?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=1557
Your name: Jeff Jones

Topic of research:Forest Therapy and Happiness
Summary of findings:The study discovered that there was a significant increase in one's happiness by demonstrating cardiovascular activity in nature settings. When forest walking and urban walking speeds were compared, walking speeds remained the same. However there was a higher value held towards forest walking as well as a larger decrease in tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue and confusion.
Link to article or resource: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/834360/
Your name: Jeff Jones

Topic of research: Freedom and Happiness
Summary of findings: This finding unveils the correlation between levels of happiness and amounts of freedom. With many factors taken into consideration to certain demographics that were studied (income, age, etc), the excerpt came to the consensus that countries with more freedom have a tendency to be happier than those in more communist and controlling countries. Even though more free countries were happier, it didn't necessarily mean that their overall qualities of their lives were better.
Link to article or resource: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1A2siA19hKYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA257&dq=happiness+correlation+study&ots=2pjw1g6-ko&sig=mfvxsAGC85UvhDCibNRx-3MJE4I#v=onepage&q=happiness%20correlation%20study&f=false (p 257-292)
Your name: Jeff Jones

Topic of research: Leisure and Happiness
Summary of findings: The article by Lathia et al. describes a research study done in which individuals’ smartphones tracked their physical activity levels and participants also took a mood-tracking questionnaire at two random points throughout the day. The findings of the study found the individuals who had higher reports of physical activity, whether that be exercise or non-exercise, were happier than those who were not as physically active.
Link to article or resource: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&sid=e1870ac0-60d7-42ad-b7b3-2feac889ab53%40sessionmgr4010
Your name: Alanna Unruh

Topic of research: Marriage, Children, and Happiness
Summary of findings: The research done by Vanassche et al. examined how happiness is affected by marriage and the presence of children in 24 countries. After looking over the data, they found that marriage does in fact increase happiness, and it positively affects females and males in different ways. For women, the researchers found that the increase in happiness correlating to marriage had to do with its social approval and it is, in some cases, culturally significant. On the other hand, the study found that men benefit from marriage due to its positive affect on their well-being. As for the correlation between childbearing and happiness, Vanassche et al. discovered that the age of the child is important for determining its effect on the parents’ happiness. The researchers found that young children do not increase nor decrease a married couples’ happiness. Older children, however, were found to possibly decrease the happiness of a married couple. The results included additional factors, such as cultural and social elements, that were important in determining how a married couple’s happiness may be affected by childbearing.
Link to article or resource: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=e174d9f2-69f1-4a84-9d7a-423d79ed000d%40sessionmgr4009
Your name: Alanna Unruh

Topic of research: Social Status, Employment, and Happiness
Summary of findings: The research article by Xiang et al. discusses the effect one’s occupational status and its related social status in China has one his/ her happiness. It was determined that the higher one’s social status was due to his occupation, the happier he would be. The correlation between social status, employment, and happiness was hypothesized to be due to corresponding variables such as self-confidence and mental health.
Link to article or resource: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=827dd423-712c-42dc-a230-5c13052ba99c%40sessionmgr4010
Your name: Alanna Unruh

Topic of Research: Income and Happiness
Summary of Findings: This study found that those who win "medium" lotteries go on to have significantly better psychological health. However, the effects take a couple years to develop. After two years is when the researches could see a significant difference from the control and the group of those who had won a lottery.
Link to Article: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/33935/1/515785334.pdf
Your Name: Kimberly Forster

Topic of Research: Marriage, Life Events, and Happiness
Summary of Findings: This study found that death causes significant mental distress. The death of a spouse has the largest level of emotional severity, followed by the death of a child, and then death of a parent. Additionally, women suffer larger falls in happiness than men, especially in the death of a child.
Link to Article: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/5504/1/WRRO_author_version_front_page2.pdf
Your Name: Kimberly Forster

Topic of Research: Age and Happiness
Summary of Findings: This research started out by looking at the previous research that found a U-shaped relationship between age and happiness. After completing the study, some data looked very similar to a U-shape, others a wave. However, the U-Shape disappeared when using fixed effects because of a reverse causality issue: happiness increasing variables, such as getting a job, getting married, or high income. The main findings from fixed-effects regression is a large and steady decrease in happiness as people get older.
Link to Article: http://www.ncer.edu.au/papers/documents/WPNo26R.pdf
Your Name: Kimberly Forster
Topic of Research: Happiness and Age
Summary of Findings: Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis.
Link to Article: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=cae422cb-a86e-43db-bf9c-049b2ab12b65%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=109385621&db=a9h
Your Name: Cassidy Maddio
Topic of Research: Happiness and Social Status
Summary of Findings: Does the intensity of social comparison condition the effect of income on well-being? Does the reference group for comparison condition this effect? We present results from the Social Status, Consumption, and Happiness Survey, a national survey of Americans conducted in 2012. The findings suggest that the more highly individuals rate their income relative to others, the happier they are; that individuals who find it important to compare their income to that of others are less happy; and that the reference group that is salient for comparison conditions the association between income and well-being
Link to Article: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=8&sid=cae422cb-a86e-43db-bf9c-049b2ab12b65%40sessionmgr4007
Your Name: Cassidy Maddio
Topic of Research: Ethnicity, Leisure and Happiness
Summary of Article: The purpose of this study was to examine how ethnicity and leisure satisfaction affected people's happiness, peacefulness, and quality of life. A trilingual telephone survey of Chinese/Canadians (N = 261) and British/Canadians (N = 258) was conducted. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that sex had no significant effect on any regressors. Ethnicity significantly affected standard of living, achieving in life, and life as a whole. Overall leisure satisfaction significantly affected happiness, peacefulness, and all nine quality of life domains. Canonical correlations also showed that happiness and achieving in life were positively correlated for British/Canadians and happiness and personal relationships were positively correlated for some Chinese/Canadians.
Link to Article: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=12&sid=cae422cb-a86e-43db-bf9c-049b2ab12b65%40sessionmgr4007
Your Name: Cassidy Maddio

Topic of research: Nature and Happiness
Summary of findings: Research found that when humans interact with nature they become more vital in the work place and have over all
better wellbeing. This relevant to Arglyle because it looks at work place and social topics.
Link to article or resource: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204616302717
Your name: Kanyon Powers

Topic of research: The pursuit of happiness; reflection on past philosophers ideas on happiness.
Summary of findings: A brief outline of what past philosophers have said about Happiness and how psychological science has
helped or hindered those ideas.
Link to article or resource: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40212237
Your name: Kanyon Powers

Topic of research: Music and overall happiness.
Summary of findings: There is a link between musical people and overall happiness. This isn’t super ;;relevant to Arglyle but I
thought it was interesting.
Link to article or resource: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3741536/
Your name: Kanyon Powers

Topic of research: Age and Money
Summary of findings: Younger people tend to care more about wealth and therefore wealth brings more happiness to the younger generation rather than to the elderly.
Link to article or resource: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X10001431
Your name: Auzien Homaizad

Topic of research: Happiness and Self-esteem
Summary of findings: Happiness is defined individually for everyone but high self-esteem brings everyone happiness considering this means one is happy with themselves as opposed to someone with low self-esteem.
Link to article or resource: http://people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/selfesteembaumeister.pdf
Your name: Auzien Homaizad

Topic of research: Income Inequality and Happiness
Summary of findings: This study used social survey data gathered between 1978 and 2008 found that greater income inequality in America lead to decreased happiness (primarily for lower income respondents). The report claimed that the reason for this increased unhappiness was "perceived unfairness and lack of trust."
Link to article or resource: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0956797611417262
Your name: Sydney Ackerman

Topic of research: Happiness of Mexican Americans
Summary of findings: This study surveyed Mexican Americans and non-hispanic white Americans at multiple levels of socio-economic status and other predictors of happiness. The study found that there was no difference in the happiness levels of men in these cases but found that "Mexican American women were not as happy as non-Hispanic White women when both were 18 to 30, were married, were economically well-off, held white-collar jobs, and were born in this country." The study did not infer why this might be the case.
Link to article or resource: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0739986303256905
Your name: Sydney Ackerman

Topic of research: Money Buys Happiness When Spending Fits Our Personality
Summary of findings: This study looks beyond the correlation between just consumption and happiness and examines if the things being purchased influence happiness. The study finds that when people purchase things in accordance to their personality their happiness increases.
Link to article or resource: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797616635200
Your name: Sydney Ackerman

Topic of research: Religion and Happiness
Summary of findings: "Twenty-four years of the General Science Surveys are analyzed to test eight hypotheses from the scattered literature on religion and happiness. The hypothesis that religiousness is positively related to happiness is supported, as is the hypothesis that the religious effect is primarily “social”. Five other hypotheses are rejected and a sixth one partly so."
Link to article or resource: www.jstor.org/stable/20447531.
Your name: Emily Welch

Topic of research:State of Economy's Effect on Happiness
Summary of findings: "We show that macroeconomic movements have strong effects on the happiness of nations. First, we find that there are clear microeconomic patterns in the psychological well-being levels or a quarter of a million randomly sampled Europeans and Americans from the 1970s to the 1990s. Second, movements in reported well-being are correlated with changes in macroeconomic variables such as gross domestic product. Third the paper establishes that recessions create psychic losses that extend beyond the fall in GDP and rise in the number of people unemployed. Fourth the welfare state appears to be compensating force: higher unemployment benefits are associated with higher national well-being."
Link to article or resource: www.jstor.org/stable/3211807.
Your name: Emily Welch

Topic of research: Effects of Marriage and Children on Happiness
Summary of findings: "In this study we overcome several limitations of earlier studies on partnership formation, childbearing, and happiness. We estimate the contributions of partnerships and fertility to subjective well-being- or “happiness”- using a unique data set from Denmark that includes monozygotic (identical) twins…The specific features of our data allow us to control for unobserved endowments that affect marriage/fertility behavior and happiness."
Link to article or resource: www.jstor.org/stable/3401473.
Your name: Emily Welch

Topic of research:Happiness and Children
Summary of findings: The authors study the hypothesis that happiness leads to motive fulfillment and motive fulfillment leads to happiness. However, parenthood seems to be an example of where this is not the case.
Link to article or resource:http://www.jstor.org.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/stable/41613342?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=happiness&searchText=and&searchText=having&searchText=children&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dhappiness%2Band%2Bhaving%2Bchildren&refreqid=search%3A8c78eb41a7fd134f4e4604a51e03760f&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Your name:Joseph Kincanon

Topic of research: Happiness and Presentation of factors and events
Summary of findings: Although absolute increases in factors (such as income) do improve happiness, it is often how they are presented that affect people's happiness (how your income compare to other peoples').
Link to article or resource:http://www.jstor.org.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/stable/40212246?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=happiness&searchText=and&searchText=choosing&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dhappiness%2Band%2Bchoosing&refreqid=search%3Ad46060a5fc8f51f4170d92450cedf77f&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Your name:Joseph Kincanon

Topic of research:Happiness and Time
Summary of findings:People often are not affected by distant past or future events in terms of their happiness, but recent past or future events have the same magnitude of effect on happiness as current events do.
Link to article or resource:http://www.jstor.org.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/stable/2106134?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=happiness&searchText=and&searchText=weight&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dhappiness%2Band%2Bweight&refreqid=search%3Ab0eac4111ef1b4028f23bb7ebb8234d7&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Your name:Joseph Kincanon

Topic of research: Religion and Happiness
Summary of findings: This study examines the relationships between religion, economic status, and happiness.
Link to article or resource: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268105000715
Your name: Nash Wuthrich

This is a study on money, sex, and happiness. I found it to be interesting because some of the findings were different than what is generally thought about the relationship between these three things. http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/316/1/WRAP_Oswald_finalsentscanjsex04.pdf University of Warwick institutional repository: http://go ... wrap.warwick.ac.uk University of Warwick institutional repository: http://go.warwick.ac.uk/wrap This paper is made available online in accordance with publisher policies.

file:///C:/Users/Owner/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/Dunn,%20Aknin,%20Norton,%202008.pdf This piece I thought was cool because it highlighted that spending money on others promoted more happiness than spending money on ourselves. It was a different perspective for sure!

http://www.science20.com/news_articles/religions_secret_happiness_ingredient_isnt_theological_study I liked this piece, which talked about the relationship between happiness and religion, because it discussed how the happiness we find in religion can sometimes be less about the religion itself and more about the sense of belonging to a community and the social aspects at play. Religion's Secret 'Happiness' Ingredient Isn't Theological ... www.science20.com Why does religion still exist? It is something we have pondered many times because its demise has been predicted for centuries.

  • Bad links!
Topic of research: Age and Happiness
Summary of findings: This study examined the trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in two Canadian longitudinal studies involving highschool seniors and university seniors. They found that in both groups, happiness increased in the thirties. While this runs counter to some cross-sectional studies, the article explains how longitudinal studies are necessary for tracking patterns of change in happiness over a lifespan and making accurate conclusions.
Link to article or resource: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=29&sid=da8f5d6d-797f-462a-aa39-b239ffe8fdea%40sessionmgr102
Your name: Allana Platt

Topic of research: Marriage and Children as a Key to Happiness?
Summary of findings: This study examined the cross-national differences of the effect of marriage and children on subjective well-being. The study examines the relationship between family structure, specifically the perceived importance of marriage and parenthood in a given culture, and how it affected happiness. The study found that women and the effect of marriage depends on the social approval of alternative family types in their culture and society. For men, marriage is important for their well-being regardless of alternative family types. They conclude that marriage is beneficial for men, while for women, satisfying the social norms with regard to family life may be more important. In terms of the effect of children, they found that the effect of young children in the household did not have a significant effect on happiness or satisfaction with family life in men or women. However the effect of older children (ages 6-17) is associated with reduced happiness of both men and women. And there is an effect of reduced satisfaction with family life in women.
Link to article or resource: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=8&sid=da8f5d6d-797f-462a-aa39-b239ffe8fdea%40sessionmgr102
Your name: Allana Platt

  • set aside

Topic of research: Democracy and Happiness
Summary of findings: This article proves the assumption that Democracy positively correlates with greater happiness. This was found to be true in this research study, but in order for Democracy to fully increase happiness, governments have to be upholding civil liberties of citizens.
Link to article or resource: http://theartsjournal.org/index.php/site/article/view/913/459
Your name: Sophie Anton

Topic of research: Leisure and Personality Effect on Happiness
Summary of findings: This article studied college students in China in order to find that extraverted people are more likely to do leisure activities versus neurotic people who are more likely to not partake in leisure activities. Extraverted people also gained more satisfaction from leisure than neurotic people. This study found that extraverted people are more likely to be happy than neurotic people and that leisure activities are more likely to make people happy than other activities.
Link to article or resource: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23545547_Personality_Leisure_Experiences_and_Happiness
Your name: Sophie Anton

Topic of research: Relationship between happiness and health
Summary of findings: Happiness and positive attitudes towards life prevent the autonomic nervous system from activating physiological reactions that could have cumulative detrimental effects on income, work status, and education. Additionally, the quality of relationships with friends has been found to be strongly associated with happiness. The authors find that best friendship quality – as measured by the subjective rating of respondents’ relationships with their best friends – is the only significant predictor of happiness. Happiness is found to be the best predictor of health in all of the stages of the analysis explained in the article.
Link to article or resource: https://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/11_07.pdf
Your name: Caitlin Miller

Topic of research: Socio-demographic and economic factors of happiness
Summary of findings: Young and old people report being happier than middle-aged people. The least happy people are aged between 30 and 35. Women report being slightly happier than men. Couples with and without children are happier than singles, single parents and people living in collective households. People with higher education indicate significantly higher well-being. Bad health significantly lowers self-reported happiness. Unhappy people do not perform well in the workplace, thus leading to being laid off. Happy people are more likely to be high performers in their jobs so they are able to maintain a steady employment. People with higher incomes have more opportunities to achieve whatever they desire, such as material goods and service, which makes them happier.
Link to article or resource: https://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/_365_2002.pdf
Your name: Caitlin Miller