Media and Body Image in America

From Alfino
Revision as of 19:12, 6 December 2009 by Djarvis2 (Talk | contribs)

Jump to: navigation, search

Background Info

Zapata, K. (n.d.). bent on body image: the media, mirrors, and photos versus photoshop. Examiner.com, Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/x-22029-Philadelphia-Generation-Y-Examiner~y2009m10d7-Bent-on-body-image-The-media-mirrors-and-photos-versus-Photoshop

This article talks about how the ideal body image has gotten thinner over the years but isn't even real because of the media using photoshop. -Jenna Imes


Derenne, Jennifer L., Beresin, Eugene V. "Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders" Academic Psychiatry 2006 30: 257-261 http://ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/30/3/257

The authors of this article attempt to explain the historical context of the problems caused my mass media and politics on peoples' body images (obesity and eating disorders) and explore potential avenues. "The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth for change."

Sweeney, Kathleen. Maiden USA. Vol. 3. New York, New York: Peter Lang Pub Inc, 2008. Print.

Maiden USA provides an overview of girl trneds since the 90s including the emergence of girls' digital media-making and self-representatin venues on MySpace, Facebook and YouTube as the newest wave of Girl Power.

Brumberg, Joan. The Body Project An Intimate History of American Girls. New York: Random House Inc, 1999. Print.

The Body Project chronicles how growing up in a females body has changes over the past century and why that experience is more difficult today than ever before. Brumberg provides an account of what adolescent girls gained and lost as American women shed the corset and the ideal of virginity for a new world of dieting, sexual freedom, and the consumerism.


Morrison, Todd G., Kalin, Rudolf, and Morrison, Melanie A.. "Body Image Evaluation and Body Image Investment Among Adolescents; A Test of Socioculture and Social Comparison Theories." Adolescence 39.155 (2004): 571-592. Research Library, ProQuest. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.<http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=4&did=772633571&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1257882011&clientId=10553>

This article discusses the evaluation of what adolescents do to their bodies (male and female) in order to achieve the distorted and unrealistic figure seen on television, including steroids and dieting.

The Media Does Not Affect Body Image

Levine, Michael P. "Everybody Knows that Mass Media are/are not a Cause of Eating Disorders": A Critical Review of Evidence for a causal ling Between Media, Negative Body Image, and Disorders Eating in Females." Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology;. 28.1 (2009): p9-42, 34p, 2 charts. Print. http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=36604147&site=ehost-live

This article reviews research pertaining to mass media as a causal risk factor for negative body image and disordered eating in females. The specific purpose is to clarify the impact of mass media by applying seven criteria that extend those of Kraemer et al. (1997) and Stice (2002). Although media effects clearly meet a majority of the criteria, this analysis indicates that, currently, engagement with mass media is probably best considered a variable risk factor that might well be later shown to be a causal risk factor. (Ayaka Dohi)


Dittmar, Helga."How do 'Body Perfect' Ideals in the Media have a Negative Impact on Body Image and Behaviors? Factors and Processess Related to Self and Identity." Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 28.1 (2009): 43-72. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=13&sid=c895580b-976c-4796-ae34-fb2add6cbb57%40sessionmgr10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=36604145

The author explains body image in terms of mental and physical well being. She examines whether the media actually affects body image. In this article she presents findings to support the picture of media influences on body image, mainly in females.

Media and Children's Body Images

Anonymous.(2001). Peer, parent, and media influences on the development of weight concerns and frequent dieting among preadolescent and adolescent girls and boys. Pediatrics, 107(1), Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/1/54?ijkey=410eb93e7399cb91980c023e2ce6e87c5d5e9b69

This article talks about how kids are influenced by the media and their parents. They became constant dieters in order to look like the bodys in the media. -Jenna Imes

Stacy Weiner. "Goodbye to Girlhood; As Pop Culture Targets Ever Younger Girls, Psychologists Worry About a Premature Focus on Sex and Appearance. " The Washington Post 20 Feb. 2007,Washington Post, ProQuest. Web. 8 Nov. 2009. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=3&did=1219141801&SrchMode=2&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1257719422&clientId=10553

Ellen Goldstein calls her daughter Maya, a Rockville fifth- grader, a teen-mag maniac. "She has a year's worth" of Girls' Life magazine, says Goldstein. "When her friends come over, they pore over this magazine." What's Maya reading? There's "Get Gorgeous Skin by Tonight," "Crush Confidential: Seal the Deal with the Guy You Dig," and one of her mom's least faves: "Get a Fierce Body Fast."Some skeptics of the sexualization notion also argue that kids today are hardier and savvier than critics think. Isaac Larian, whose company makes the large-eyed, pouty-lipped Bratz dolls, says, "Kids are very smart and know right from wrong." What's more, his testing indicates that girls want Bratz "because they are fun, beautiful and inspirational," he wrote in an e-mail. "Not once have we ever heard one of our consumers call Bratz 'sexy.' " Some adults "have a twisted sense of what they see in the product," Larian says."It's a little scary being a young girl," [Genevieve McGahey] says. "The image of sexuality has been a lot more trumpeted in this era. . . . If you're not interested in [sexuality] in middle school, it seems a little intimidating." And unrealistic body ideals pile on extra pressure, McGahey says. At a time when their bodies and their body images are still developing, "girls are not really seeing people [in the media] who are beautiful but aren't stick-thin," she notes. "That really has an effect." -Cammy Loback

Gunter, Barrie, Caroline Oates, and Mark Blades. Advertising to children on TV. Mahwah, New Jersey: Routledge, 2005. Print.

Researchers of this book present a discussion of all te issues that surroung regulating and protecting children from advertising, which they are not themselves able to assess because of psychological immaturity. They study the content of the media, its impact, and the regulation.

Thompson, Teresa L, and Eugenia Zerbinos. "Television Cartoons: Do Children Notice It's a Boy's World?." education resources information center. 00/08/1994. education resources information center, Web. 9 Nov 2009. <http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED376539&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED376539>.

This primary research shows the involvement that cartoons have with children, how male and female children view each other based on these cartoons (media).

Media and the Male Body Image

Behavior and Attitude Effects

Articles

Experiments

Looking Good: Male Body Image in Modern America.Full Text Available By: Hofmann, Mary. School Library Journal, Nov2005, Vol. 51 Issue 11, p60-60, 1/9p; (AN 18797458)

Morrison, Todd and Halton, Marie. "Buff, Tough, and Rough: Representations of Muscularity in Action Motion Pictures." Journal of Men's Studies, Winter2009, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p57-74, 18p, 2 charts; (AN 36641590) http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=36641590&site=ehost-live

The authors of this article explore the prevalence of constructing masculinity in motion pictures.A content analysis was conducted on a random sample of top-grossing action films from 1980 to 2006. Results demonstrate that actors in this genre have shown a parallel trend toward increasing leanness and muscularity over the last several decades. As well, in comparison to their less muscular counterparts, those with muscular physiques were more likely to be romantically involved, evidenced higher levels of aggression, experienced more positive outcomes, and were more likely to be objectified.


Agliata, Daniel; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey. "The Impact of Media Exposure on Males' Body Image." Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Feb2004, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p7-22, 16p, 2 charts; (AN 12526480)http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12526480&site=ehost-live

The current experiment exposed 158 males to television advertisements containing either ideal male images or neutral images that were inserted between segments of a television program. Participants were blocked on dispositional body image and attitudes toward appearance variables to assess for moderating effects. Results indicated that participants exposed to ideal image advertisements became significantly more depressed and had higher levels of muscle dissatisfaction than those exposed to neutral ads. Inconsistent with past research, no dispositional effects were noted that would suggest the influence of schematicity on mood and body image changes.

Leit, Richard A., James J. Gray, and Harrison G. Pope Jr. "The Media's Representation of the Ideal Male Body: A Cause for Muscle Dysmorphia?." International Journal of Eating Disorders 31.3 (2002): 334-338. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Nov. 2009. http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6451040&site=ehost-live

Presents a study that examined the effects of media images on men's attitudes toward their body image and appearance. Review of related literature; Methodology used; Limitations of the study.

Olson, Michele S., Michael R. Esco, and Hank Williford "Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry." Physical Educator 66.1 (2009): 45-54. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=13&sid=7ce1399a-7e52-4903-b42d-4385e6904c50%40sessionmgr11 bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=37287370#db=aph&AN=37287370

This article shows their study was to examine body image concerns among college males as physical education majors. They had sixty physical education majors volunteer for their study. Of the 60, most of them preferred a more muscular physique that is reflected in media today.

Factors of Media

Media and the Female Body Image

Media's Effect on Race

Daniels, Elizabeth A. "Sex Objects, Athletes, and Sexy Athletes: How Media Representations of Women Athletes Can Impact Adolescent Girls and College Women" Journal of Adolescent Research, Jul2009, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p399-422, 24p, 3 charts; (AN 42542229).http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=29971022&site=ehost-live.

Contextualizing Latina girls' body image development requires an appreciation of mainstream body ideals, Latino/a cultural values, and the process by which Latina girls traverse the borders between them. The current study examines how media use and acculturation act across adolescence to shape the development of body image among Latina girls. Eighty-one Latina girls (ages 11 to 17) reported on their body satisfaction, acculturation, and use of mainstream, Black-oriented, and Spanish-language television. Fifty-two of these girls participated in a longitudinal follow-up 2 years later. Frequent viewing of mainstream television was associated with decreases in body image across adolescence. Frequent viewing of Black-oriented television was associated with greater body satisfaction, specifically among more acculturated girls. Illustrative quotes from a subset of participants are included.

Media's Positive Effect on Female Body Image

Articles

Amanda J Holmstrom. (2004). The Effects of the Media on Body Image: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(2), 196-217. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from Research Library. (Document ID: 856196371).http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=2&did=427135001&SrchMode=1&sid=12&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1256028711&clientId=10553

The media have been criticized for depicting the thin woman as ideal. Some argue these images create unrealistic expectations for young women and cause body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. This study cumulates findings of empirical studies that examine the effects of media on body image. An estimate of overall effect size, trends in the research, and the influence of moderating variables are examined and reported. Results suggest depictions of thin women may have little to no effect on viewers. However, images of overweight women seem to have a positive effect on women's body image. Suggestions for future research are offered. -Cammy and Michael

N.A."Media's effect on girls: body image and gender identity." media family. 4/3/09. national institute on media and the family, Web. 7 Nov 2009. <http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml>.

This article shows and displays information involving the media and the public. It is displayed by factual statistics credited by a credible source, media and family. - Cammy

Experiments

Behavior and Attitude Effects

=Articles

Brumberg, Joan. "The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls." Therapeutic Resources. 01/09/98. Random House, Inc., Web. 7 Nov 2009. <http://www.therapeuticresources.com/62-8text.html>.

This website displays a small excerpt chapter from the book "The Body Project," which illustrates the effects that women go through due to society and their judgment on how they should feel and look.

"Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls." Women's Programs Office. 2009. American Psychological Association, Web. 8 Nov 2009. <http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualization.html>.

The proliferation of sexualized images of girls and young women in advertising, merchandising, and media is harming girls' self-image and healthy development. This report explores the cognitive and emotional consequences, consequences for mental and physical health, and impact on development of a healthy sexual self-image. - Cammy Loback

Tara Carney, and Johann Louw. "Eating disordered behaviors and media exposure. " Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41.12 (2006): 957-966. Research Library, ProQuest. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.<http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1190953531&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1257882011&clientId=10553>

This article discusses the effects that the media has on people and how this affects their body image by incorporating eating disorders.

Experiments

Thompson, Teresa L, and Eugenia Zerbinos. "Television Cartoons: Do Children Notice It's a Boy's World?." education resources information center. 00/08/1994. education resources information center, Web. 9 Nov 2009. <http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED376539&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED376539>.

This primary research shows the involvement that cartoons have with children, how male and female children view each other based on these cartoons (media).


Casper,R.C and Offer, D.(1990). Weight and dieting concerns in adolescents, fashion or symptom?. Pediatrics, 86(3), Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/86/3/384?ijkey=c3a8fef20b0614214b969bf7234e392b4d2d4203

A study was done on high school seniors showing that girls were more preoccupied with their weight than boys due to dissatisfaction from the media, especially among white females. -Jenna Imes

Bergstom, Rochelle L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Malheim, Jeremy E.."Media Comparisons and Threats to Body Image: Seeking Evidence of Self-Affirmation." Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Feb2009, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p264-280, 17p, 2 charts, 3 graphs; (AN 36909409) http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=36909409&site=ehost-live

This article is a report on an observation of undergraduate females and how their body images were affect by mass media. They observed the effect of thin models on larger women. Results confirmed the idea that certain women engage in affirmation processes after a media-induced threat to self.

Real Life Stories

Knight, Heather. "A Lean Year / Stanford med student opens the book of her life as a preteen anorexic.(PENINSULA FRIDAY)." San Francisco Chronicle. (April 21, 2000): 1. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. INLAN - Gonzaga University Library. 9 Nov. 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T004&prodId=OVRC&docId=CJ61596789&source=gale&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=gonzagaufoley&version=1.0>.

This is an article about a women who describes her desire to be thin as a child. She used to writes in her diaries about he skinny obsessions and it wasn't until then when she realized she had a problem.

Factors of Media

Articles

Mozes, Alan. "Reuters Health." Human Services Careers Network. 13/07/02. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Web. 7 Nov 2009. <http://hscareers.com/news/articles.asp?id=127>.

This website contains an article that explains the information of how women compare themselves to the unrealistic bombardment that the media provides on television. The website is based on human resources, so it may or may not seem credible enough to use.

Fox, Kate. "Mirror, mirror - A summary of research findings on body image." Social Research - Social Trends Analysis. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. <http://www.sirc.org/publik/mirror.html>.

This website talks about how American's are all obsessed with looking at ourselves in the mirror, and how media is one reason many of us obsess over appearance. It then goes on to break down images and reactions: what we see and how we feel about it (species, sex, age, ethnic group, sexual orientation, TV and magazines, mood, childhood etc.) (Cammy)

Experiments

Barriga, Claudia. "Media Context, Female Body Size and Perceived Realism." Sex Roles. 60.1/2 (2009): 128-141. Print.http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35833649&site=ehost-live

Women with larger body types are underrepresented and presented negatively on television. Two experiments explored the possibility that program context, specifically the roles women play on television, may influence judgments about the realism of various women’s body types. Both experiments, one with 92 undergraduate students at a large university in the northeastern United States, and one with 69 mall patrons in the same area, found that while the body type of an actress had little effect in a domestic setting, larger women were perceived as less realistic and less likely to get a television role in a professional setting. The results have implications for how audiences judge body types and for how audiences make realism judgments.


Want, Stephen, Kristin Vickers, and Jennifer Amos "The Influence of Television Programs on Appearance Satisfaction: Making and Mitigating Social Comparisons to “Friends”." Sex Roles 60.9/10 (2009): 642-655. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 6 Nov. 2009.

Studies of “media effects” on women's appearance satisfaction have focused largely on images from fashion magazines and television commercials, and rarely on images from television programs. The present study reports on the effects of experimental exposure to a television situation-comedy depicting thin and highly physically-attractive characters on appearance satisfaction in Canadian undergraduate women ( N = 76) from a large, ethnically-diverse, metropolitan area. The results demonstrate a detrimental effect on participants’ satisfaction with their overall appearance, as measured on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). This result is interpreted in line with social comparison theory. In addition, exposure to written intervention material, designed to remove the basis for social comparison with television images, was shown to be effective in mitigating this effect.

Potential Changes in Media (To Improve Effects on Body Image)

McEvey, Gail L. "A Program to Promote Positive Body Image: A 1-Year Follow-Up Evaluation." Journal of Early Adolescence. 22.1 (2002): 96. Print.

The effectiveness of a program designed to promote body image satisfaction and prevent eating problems in young adolescent girls was evaluated over a 1-year period. A total of 263 girls in Grade 6, one-half of whom were in the control group, completed questionnaires that assessed body image satisfaction and eating problems before and 1 week after the prevention program, and 6 and 12 months later. The six-session prevention program was developed around two principal components:(a) media literacy about the dangers associated with the idealization of thinness and (b) the promotion of life skills, including self-esteem enhancement strategies, stress management techniques, and peer relations skills. There was no program effect. Instead, the findings revealed significant increases in body image satisfaction and decreases in eating problem scores over time for participants in both the prevention and control groups.


Thompson, J. Kevin; Heinberg, Leslie J.. "The Media's Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We've Reviled Them, Now Can We Rehabilitate Them?" Journal of Social Issues, Summer99, Vol. 55 Issue 2, p339-353, 15p; (AN 2190321) http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=2190321&site=ehost-live

One specific individual difference variable, internalization of societal pressures regarding prevailing standards of attractiveness, appears to moderate or even mediate the media's effects on women body satisfaction and eating dysfunction. Problematic media messages inherent in existing media portrayals of eating disorders are apparent, leading researchers to pinpoint intervention strategies that might counteract such viewpoints. Social activism and social marketing approaches are suggested as methods for fighting negative media messages. The media itself is one potential vehicle for communicating productive, accurate, and deglamorized messages about eating and shape-related disorders.


Helen Morant. "BMA demands more responsible media attitude on body image. " British Medical Journal 320.7248 (2000): 1495-1495. Research Library, ProQuest. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.<http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=55392765&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1257882011&clientId=10553>

This text talks about how the BMA demands more realistic images that the media use in magazines and commercials and so, with fine explaining of the media's unrealistic preferences being Calista Flockhart, star of the TV show Ally Mcbeal.

Derenne,J.L and Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic psychiatry, Retrieved from http://ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/30/3/257

The media has a negative effect on adolescents and their body image leading to low self esteem and disordered eating. The authors also examine the factors that cause changes among female and their beliefs in how to change the media sources. (Jenna Imes and Ayaka Dohi)

"Ten Steps To Positive Body Image." National Eating Disorders Association. 2002. Web. 2 Dec 2009. <http://www.wesleyan.edu/weswell/docs/ed_bodyimage/10%20Steps%20to%20Positive%20Body%20Image.pdf>.

These 10 steps to positive body image is a good list from the National Eating Disorders Association to positively changing Body Image. (Cammy)

Dr. Darshak Sanghavi. "IMMUNIZE YOUR CHILDREN AGAINST HEALTH DANGERS OF TV. " Boston Globe 7 Dec. 2004, ProQuest Newsstand, ProQuest. Web. 3 Dec. 2009. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdwebindex=5&did=755827341&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1259870881&clientId=1055 .

The solution relies on teaching children how to deconstruct media and consume it critically thus making them "media-literate." Making children aware of how they are manipulated, writes Dr. Michael Rich of Children's Hospital in a medical journal, "functions as a `mind condom,' a barrier method [which protects] against the unhealthy influences of media." In cinematic metaphor, media literacy is like entering the "Matrix," where awareness of one's manipulation is irreversible: You can't return to. (Cammy)

Other

History

Brumberg, Joan. "The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls." Therapeutic Resources. 01/09/98. Random House, Inc., Web. 7 Nov 2009. <http://www.therapeuticresources.com/62-8text.html>. This website displays a small excerpt chapter from the book "The Body Project," which illustrates the effects that women go through due to society and their judgment on how they should feel and look.

Derenne, Jennifer L., Beresin, Eugene V. "Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders" Academic Psychiatry 2006 30: 257-261 http://ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/30/3/257 The authors of this article attempt to explain the historical context of the problems caused my mass media and politics on peoples' body images (obesity and eating disorders) and explore potential avenues. "The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth for change."

Stats

Morrison, Todd G., Kalin, Rudolf, and Morrison, Melanie A.. "Body Image Evaluation and Body Image Investment Among Adolescents; A Test of Socioculture and Social Comparison Theories." Adolescence 39.155 (2004): 571-592. Research Library, ProQuest. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.<http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=4&did=772633571&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1257882011&clientId=10553> This article discusses the evaluation of what adolescents do to their bodies (male and female) in order to achieve the distorted and unrealistic figure seen on television, including steroids and dieting.


N.A."media's effect on girls: body image and gender identity." media family. 4/3/09. national institute on media and the family, Web. 7 Nov 2009. <http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml>.

This article shows and displays information involving the media and the public. It is displayed by factual statistics credited by a credible source, media and family.


Personal Experience

Knight, Heather. "A Lean Year / Stanford med student opens the book of her life as a preteen anorexic.(PENINSULA FRIDAY)." San Francisco Chronicle. (April 21, 2000): 1. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. INLAN - Gonzaga University Library. 9 Nov. 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T004&prodId=OVRC&docId=CJ61596789&source=gale&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=gonzagaufoley&version=1.0>. This is an article about a women who describes her desire to be thin as a child. She used to writes in her diaries about he skinny obsessions and it wasn't until then when she realized she had a problem.

Movies

Beyond Killing Us Softly:The Strength to Resists. Dir. Margaret Lazarus and Renner Wunderlich. Cambridge Documentary Films, Inc., 2000. Videocassette.

A 33 minute documentary about the image of women in advertising. The film presents the ideas of girls and young women as well as those of the leading authorities in the fields of psychology of women and girls, eating disorders, gender studies, violence against women, and media literacy--and focuses their ideas on practical solutions and the best tactics for reclaiming our culture.

"Killing Us Softly". Dir. Margaret Lazarus and Renner Wunderlich. Cambridge Documentary Films, Inc., 2000. Videocassette.

A 29 minute documentary about the image of women in advertising. The film presents the idea of women being depicted as flawless in advertisement, and sexual ideas that come out of a magazine advertisement. She discusses the idea that come out of advertising - that women are judged on their appearance. (Michael and Cammy)