Difference between revisions of "Spring 2019 Ethics Course Lecture Notes"

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m (2: JAN 23)
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==2: JAN 23==
 
==2: JAN 23==
 +
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===Assigned===
  
 
:*Ariely, Why We Lie (6)
 
:*Ariely, Why We Lie (6)
Line 48: Line 50:
  
 
:*Zimbardo Experiment -- view one of the youtube videos about the experiment.  read the wiki page.
 
:*Zimbardo Experiment -- view one of the youtube videos about the experiment.  read the wiki page.
 +
 +
===Philosophical Method===
 +
 +
Please find time to review the wiki page [[Philosophical Methods]].  Today we'll be working with the following methods:
 +
 +
:*Theorizing from new or established knowledge
 +
:*Identifying presuppositions
 +
:*Defining terms
 +
:*Fitting principles to cases
 +
:*Counter-examples
 +
 +
===Method: Tips on How to report study findings===
 +
 +
*Philosophy makes use of a wide range of evidence and knowledge.  In this course you will encounter alot of psychological, anthropological and cultural studies.  You have to practice the way you represent studies (as opposed to theories) and how you make inferences from their conclusions. 
 +
 +
:*observational, survey, experimental
 +
:*study setup: for observational: who were the test subjects, what were they asked to do; for survey: what instrument was used, to whom was it given?
 +
:*what conditions were tested?
 +
:*what was the immediate result?
 +
:*what was the significance or inference to be made from the results?
 +
 +
 +
===Ariely, Why We Lie===
 +
 +
:*Assumptions:  we think honesty is an all or nothing trait.
 +
:*Research on honesty with the "matrix task"
 +
::*Shredder condition
 +
::*Payment condition
 +
::*Probability of getting caught condition
 +
::*Distance of payment condition
 +
::*Presence of a cheater condition
 +
:*Priming with 10 commandments or signature on top of form
 +
:*Implications: for current and possible new approaches to limit cheating.
 +
:*Philosophical Implications: What, if anything, does this tell us about the nature of ethics?
 +
 +
===Singer, Chapter 1, "About Ethics," from ''Practical Ethics''===
 +
 +
:*Some initial points:
 +
::*Ethics not just about sexual morality
 +
::*Ethics not an "ideal" that can't be put into practice
 +
::*Ethics is not based on religion. Mentions Plato's dialogue ''Euthyphro''- review core argument.  Can you think of other positions on religion and ethics that might be compatible or incompatible with Singer's? 
 +
 +
:*Singer's arguments against Ethics and relativism -- different versions of relativism:
 +
 +
::*Version 1: Ethics varies by culture: true and false, same act under different conditions may have different value, but this is '''superficial relativism'''.  The different condition, for example, existence of birth control, are objective differences.  The principle might remain the same and be objective (don't have kids you're not ready to care for)
 +
 +
::*Version 2: Marxist relativism (and similar critiques) and non-relativism: Morality is what the powerful say it is.  But then, why side with the proletariat?  Marxists must ultimately be objectivists about value or there is no argument for caring about oppression and making revolution. 
 +
 +
::*Problems for '''real''' relativists ("wrong" means "I disapprove"): consistency across time, polls could determine ethics
 +
 +
::*Problems for subjectivist: making sense of disagreement
 +
 +
::*2 versions of subjectivism that might work: ethical disagreements express attitudes that we are trying to persuade others of (close to Haidt's "social agendas").  Or, ethical judgements are prescriptions that reflect a concern that others comply.
 +
 +
:*Singer: Ok to say the values aren't objective like physics (aren't facts about the world), but not sensible to deny the meaningfulness of moral disagreement.  Ethical reasoning.
 +
 +
:*Singer's view (one of several major positions): p. 10 - ethical standards are supported by reason.  Can't just be self-interested. '''Focus for Singer and many philosophers is that Ethics is the attempt and practice to justify our behaviors and expectations of others''' The focus falls on reason-giving and argumentation. 
 +
 +
:*The sorts of reasons that count as ethical: universalizable ones. Note: most standard ethical theories satisfy this requirement, yet yield different analysis and advice.
 +
 +
:*Consequences of "equality of interests" in utilitarian thought: Principle of Utility: Greatest good (happiness) for the greatest number.  13: first utilitarians understood happiness in terms of pleasures and pains.  Modern utilitarians are often "preference utilitarians".
  
 
==3: JAN 28==
 
==3: JAN 28==

Revision as of 11:39, 19 January 2019

Return to Ethics

Ethics

1: JAN 16

  • Introduction to the Course
  • Welcome
  • About the Course
  • Course Websites (handout)
  • Approaching Ethics through contemporary research. Fields involved: Psychology, Moral Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Behavioral Economics, Philosophy, Political Science, Sociology, History, Global Studies
  • Major Applied Topics: Obligations to Assist, Globalization Ethics (climate, human rights, trade), Immigration
  • Succeeding in the Course
  • Prep Cycle - view old notes, read, note, quiz, evaluate preparation.
  • Keep in Mind Course Research Questions
  • Course Management
  • Transparency in Pedagogy
  • Some Course Dates:
Writing Workshop 2/20
SW1 due 3/4
SW2 due 3/27
Finish optional journals by 4/15
SW3 due 4/29
Critical Analysis Paper due 4/22
Final Essay due at Final Exam time.
  • Required Assignments and Weight Ranges
  • Critical Analysis Paper 20-30% .3
  • Final Essays 20-30% .3
  • Q&W 25-40 .4

2: JAN 23

Assigned

  • Ariely, Why We Lie (6)
  • Singer, Chapter 1, "About Ethics," from Practical Ethics
  • Zimbardo Experiment -- view one of the youtube videos about the experiment. read the wiki page.

Philosophical Method

Please find time to review the wiki page Philosophical Methods. Today we'll be working with the following methods:

  • Theorizing from new or established knowledge
  • Identifying presuppositions
  • Defining terms
  • Fitting principles to cases
  • Counter-examples

Method: Tips on How to report study findings

  • Philosophy makes use of a wide range of evidence and knowledge. In this course you will encounter alot of psychological, anthropological and cultural studies. You have to practice the way you represent studies (as opposed to theories) and how you make inferences from their conclusions.
  • observational, survey, experimental
  • study setup: for observational: who were the test subjects, what were they asked to do; for survey: what instrument was used, to whom was it given?
  • what conditions were tested?
  • what was the immediate result?
  • what was the significance or inference to be made from the results?


Ariely, Why We Lie

  • Assumptions: we think honesty is an all or nothing trait.
  • Research on honesty with the "matrix task"
  • Shredder condition
  • Payment condition
  • Probability of getting caught condition
  • Distance of payment condition
  • Presence of a cheater condition
  • Priming with 10 commandments or signature on top of form
  • Implications: for current and possible new approaches to limit cheating.
  • Philosophical Implications: What, if anything, does this tell us about the nature of ethics?

Singer, Chapter 1, "About Ethics," from Practical Ethics

  • Some initial points:
  • Ethics not just about sexual morality
  • Ethics not an "ideal" that can't be put into practice
  • Ethics is not based on religion. Mentions Plato's dialogue Euthyphro- review core argument. Can you think of other positions on religion and ethics that might be compatible or incompatible with Singer's?
  • Singer's arguments against Ethics and relativism -- different versions of relativism:
  • Version 1: Ethics varies by culture: true and false, same act under different conditions may have different value, but this is superficial relativism. The different condition, for example, existence of birth control, are objective differences. The principle might remain the same and be objective (don't have kids you're not ready to care for)
  • Version 2: Marxist relativism (and similar critiques) and non-relativism: Morality is what the powerful say it is. But then, why side with the proletariat? Marxists must ultimately be objectivists about value or there is no argument for caring about oppression and making revolution.
  • Problems for real relativists ("wrong" means "I disapprove"): consistency across time, polls could determine ethics
  • Problems for subjectivist: making sense of disagreement
  • 2 versions of subjectivism that might work: ethical disagreements express attitudes that we are trying to persuade others of (close to Haidt's "social agendas"). Or, ethical judgements are prescriptions that reflect a concern that others comply.
  • Singer: Ok to say the values aren't objective like physics (aren't facts about the world), but not sensible to deny the meaningfulness of moral disagreement. Ethical reasoning.
  • Singer's view (one of several major positions): p. 10 - ethical standards are supported by reason. Can't just be self-interested. Focus for Singer and many philosophers is that Ethics is the attempt and practice to justify our behaviors and expectations of others The focus falls on reason-giving and argumentation.
  • The sorts of reasons that count as ethical: universalizable ones. Note: most standard ethical theories satisfy this requirement, yet yield different analysis and advice.
  • Consequences of "equality of interests" in utilitarian thought: Principle of Utility: Greatest good (happiness) for the greatest number. 13: first utilitarians understood happiness in terms of pleasures and pains. Modern utilitarians are often "preference utilitarians".

3: JAN 28

  • Haidt, The Righteous Mind, Intro and Chapter 1

4: JAN 30

  • Lecture on Consequentialisms
  • Robert Sapolsky, from Behave, Chapter 13, "Morality and doing the Right Thing, Once You've Figured Out What that Is." pp. 478-483.

5: FEB 4

  • Haidt, Chapter 3, "Elephants Rule"
  • Haidt, Chapter 4, "Vote for Me (Here's Why)"

6: FEB 6

  • Lecture on Non-Consequentialisms
  • Robert Sapolsky, C 13, "Morality..." pp. 483-493.
  • The Trolley Problem

7: FEB 11

  • Haidt, Chapter 5, "Beyond WEIRD Morality"
  • Haidt, Chapter 6, "Taste Buds of the Righteous Mind"

8: FEB 13

  • Hibbing, John R., Kevin Smith, and John R. Alford, Predisposed: Liberals, conservatives, and the biology of political difference, Chapter 1.
  • Lecture: Add notes on Phil Theories
  • Robert Sapolsky, C 13, "Morality..." pp. 493-500.

9: FEB 18

  • Haidt, Chapter 7, "The Moral Foundations of Politics"
  • Haidt, Chapter 8: The Conservative Advantage

10: FEB 20

  • Hibbing, John R., Kevin Smith, and John R. Alford, Predisposed, Chapter 2, "Getting Into Bedrock with Politics".
  • Writing workshop with old writing

11: FEB 25

  • Haidt, Chapter 9, "Why Are We so Groupish?"

12: FEB 27

  • Hibbing, John R., Kevin Smith, and John R. Alford, Predisposed, Chapter 4, "Drunk Flies and Salad Greens".
  • Robert Sapolsky, from Behave, Chapter 14, "Feeling Someone's Pain, Understanding Soemone's Pain, Alleviating Someone's Pain." 521-535.

13: MAR 4

  • Robert Sapolsky, C 13, "Morality..." pp. 501-517.
  • SW1

14: MAR 6

  • Robert Sapolsky, from Behave, Chapter 14, "Feeling Someone's Pain, Understanding Soemone's Pain, Alleviating Someone's Pain." 535--552.

15: MAR 18

  • Singer, "Rich and Poor"

16: MAR 20

  • Sachs, Jeffrey, "Can the Rich Afford to Help the Poor?" (2006)
  • Jeffrey Sachs, "The Case for Aid" p. 850

17: MAR 25

  • Singer, One World Now, Chapter 1, "A Changing World," (1-16)

18: MAR 27

  • Singer, One World Now, Chapter 2, "One Atmosphere," (16-69)
  • SW2

19: APR 1

  • Syla Benhabib, "The Morality of Migration" (766-767)

20: APR 3

  • Singer, One World Now, Chapter 4 "One Law," (122-149)

21: APR 8

  • Macdeo, Stephen, "The Moral Dilemma of U.S. Immigration Policy Revisited: Open Borders vs. Social Justice?" (768-780)

22: APR 10

  • Singer, One World Now, Chapter 3, "One Economy," (69-105)

23: APR 15

  • Singer, One World Now, Chapter 3, "One Economy," (105-122)

24: APR 17

  • Haidt, Chapter 10, "The Hive Switch" (221-246)

25: APR 22

  • Critical Analysis Paper due

26: APR 24

  • Haidt, Chapter 11, "Religion is a Team Sport" (189-221)

27: APR 29

  • Haidt, Chapter 12, "Can't We all Disagree More Constructively?" (189-221)
  • SW3 due

28: MAY 1

  • Course Conclusion