Summer 2014 Philosophy of Italian Culture Class Notes 1

From Alfino
Jump to: navigation, search

Class Dates


Monday May 19, 2014

First Day notes

  • Introductions
  • Name, major, goals, motivation, relevant experiences.
  • Course overview
  • Course topics and research questions TH
  • Movie distribution MA
  • Wiki Instruction MA
  • Assignments in this course TH
  • Start Course
  • Show clip from GIC
  • Answer questions for Tuesday

Tuesday May 20, 2014

Davies, "6 Things Wrong with Italy"

  • Economy:
  • A stagnating economy, corruption, organized crime, political apathy, misogyny, youth unemployment
  • "the economy having contracted for the last six consecutive quarters and languished in more than a decade of almost non-existent growth. Unemployment is at more than 11%; for under-25s, it is more than 36%. Italy has the second highest ratio of sovereign debt to GDP in the EU."
  • lack of competitiveness --
  • Treatment of women: "Italy's female employment rate is, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 46.5% – better only than Greece, Mexico and Turkey among advanced economies, and 12 percentage points below the EU average."
  • Justice system: "Italy is one of the most litigious countries in Europe, with more than 2.8m cases brought in 2011 alone, and has by far the most lawyers of any EU country – around 240,000" also, overcrowded prisons.
  • Organized Crime: "The 'Ndrangheta, for instance, has its roots in Calabria but dominates the European cocaine trade and the huge contracts being put out for tender at Milan's Expo 2015 are under particular scrutiny for signs of mafia involvement." (new "Tangentopoli"): update May 2014 executives questioned/jailed; anti corruption task force assigned by PM Renzi to former Antimafia magistrate Raffaele Cantone
  • Politics: lack of stable governments (Wikipedia: over 50 since WWII)
  • North/South division: "GDP per person is more than 40% lower in the south than in the centre and north "

  • Act one la mala Italia:
  • political corruption
  • extra-state and state terrorism
  • organized crime, political connivance, control of elections, money washing in legal enterprises
  • Bomb attacks on antimafia magistrates Falcone and Borsellini, 1992,
  • Ndrangheta, controllo territoriale; justice and education to fight organized crime
  • origins of B's money
  • Discrimination of women
  • Liva in Taranto, jobs and lives depend on bad government and bad capitalism
  • Act II Buona Italia
  • The South Project - confiscated property becomes community for differently abled
  • GOEL female workforce
  • If not now when: women's resistance to B
  • Familial/good capitalism
  • Marchionne + Elkmann, FIAT
  • Ferraro, nutella. Ethics of Sharing with community
  • Eataly, slow food, local, fair
  • Cultura, Torino museum of cinema occupation of theatres
  • Act III Sloth
  • Sloth the major and worst of sins; easily absolvable
  • Berlusconicmo has put everyone in the purgatory; all are equally involved and all are as solved
  • Mauizio Viroli - Machiavelli - church has made weakness "sancta religione: (holy religion) - Leaders of the Unification (1861) were morally strong and critical of the church's tendency to make deals with political power
  • Umberto Eco: the lacking sense of the state, church's influence on politics
  • Brain drain - new immigration patterns
  • search for opportunity and meritocracy; repatriation as import of intellectual resources; attention to Italy reinforces democracy
  • Eataly, slow food, local, fair
  • truth: Saviano segment, also effect of church (viroli)
  • honesty
  • creativity
  • community: women's movement, disabled community,
  • law
  • work

Wednesday May 21, 2014

Il risorgimento

  • Wood and Farell


  • Anomaly: e.g. One party government  of First Republic (1948-1992 tangentopoli)
  • lacking monopoly of violence 
  • Idiosyncratic attribution of legitimacy 
  • Contesting voices and dissent against the state's monopoly of legitimacy from different groups 
  • Risorgimento:,state speared,absent or adversary to many 
  • Strong regional identities 
  • Antonio Gramsci failed revolution: lack of popular culture to forge unity 
  • Refusal of federalism during the Risorgimento,

Power sharing with the mafia 

  • Christian democrats 
  • Cooperation minstries and masoneries P2; politicians extreme left wing forces 
  • Connivance with organised,crime syndicates,of different nature - increased legitimacy of the illegitimate part 
  • Corruption and acceptance of violence undermine appeals to,justice and order 
  • Bruschetta's testimony    A culture in the antropological,sense; structures of command   (pyramidal)
  • The family is the state of the Sicilian Sciascia 
  • Diivisiond North South; imposition of,Piemontese law founded on French Rev. :*European liberalism 
  • Honour/omertà  the major currency in mafia culture 
  • Exchange of votes - electoral backing exchange for free enterprise 

D'Epiro Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • The seven pre-unitary states - Austria dominates Lombardo Veneto directly; indirect rule over the duchies in central Italy.
  • Regno Lombardo-Veneto (Milano, Venezia, Trentino, Hapsburg Empire.)
  • Ducato di Parma e Vicenza
  • Ducato di Modena e Reggio
  • Granducato (archduchy) di Toscana
  • Regno di Sardegna (Sardegna and Piedmont)
  • Regno delle due Sicilie (Napoli, Palermo, led by Borboni of Spanish origins )
  • Papal state
  • Mazzini patriotic idealism; exiled revolutionary founded Giovine italia in 1831; visions of unity as republic
  • Elected ruling Triumvit in 1849 Rome republic
  • Stirs popular unrest following Garibaldi's expedition to Sicily
  • King Vittorio Emanuele - monarch of French origins; claims Southern Italy from Garibaldi in fear the Mazzini will establish a republic
  • King of Italy in 1861; Rome becomes capital in 1870
  • Count Cavour real-politic, Turinese aristocrat and King Vittorio Emanuele's prime minister. Allows Garibaldi's return to Italy and takes advantage of Garibaldi's expedition
  • Garibaldi bravery; progressive political ideas, born in Nice, Annexed to Piedmont.
  • Member of GIovine Italian and part of Mazzini's anti-piedmont insurrection in Genova 1833, both condemned to death, and 1848 revolution in Milan
  • Declared a Colonel in Republic of Rome 1849; forced to retreat in 1851; Austrian and Napoleon III's French army in defense of the Pope's return
  • 1859 Fight for the King as head of volunteer brigade against Austrian rule of Lombardy
  • 1860 leads the spedizione dei mille - volunteers of diverse regional and social origins
  • Benefits from the Sicilian's opposition to Bourbon rulers and inspires popular unrest when Sicily is conquered
  • 1866 Leads volunteers in battle against Austria
  • 1867Defeated and arrested in attempt to conquer Rome

Thursday May 22, 2014

Mazzini's Argument in, "On the Duties of Man"

  • Duties before Rights: Why?
  • Competing voices (from revolutionary Europe): improve the material well being of oppressed workers. rights first.
  • But, says Mazzini, you can have rights without the possibility of exercising them. privileged classes can use rights talk to oppress (82)
  • material well being cannot be the end of social revolution.
  • Mazzini's "cosmic compolitanism" (linking eschatology (God's plan for humans) to political life)
  • Knowing God's plan -- through individual conscience -- fallible and variable
  • Need to work by "association" through a concept of Humanity
  • Duties aren't merely negative. But positive to promote social well-being
  • Need to invoke the "Reason of Humanity" (a kind of collective social conscience which is progressive)
  • Duties to state and family are still egoistic. Need to be informed by God's plan which is universal humanism.
  • p. 90 - quasi-Hegelian history of our self-knowledge of God's plan
  • Fetishism, polytheism, Christianity
  • Liberty (96-99)
  • List of liberties
  • Liberty is a means, not an end
  • Conclusion
  • More than a summary, actually a list of legitimate state functions, interestingly, including confiscation of Church property!
  • Role of government is formative: big role in education, support of Worker's Associations

Monday May 26, 2014

Gramsci: The Southern Question

  • Division of north and south – south mostly peasants. Duty of the proletariat to ensure peasant rights.
  • Turin communists had the duty of bringing the problems of the south to attention: political alliance of Northern workers and Southern peasants to overthrow bourgeoisie from power
  • Southern Question – “hegemony of the proletariat” – proletariat must understand the demands and desires of the masses of the peasants
  • Assumed the south are naturally barbarians – “the ball and chain preventing development in Italy” (socialist party idea in the North)
  • Mass action of proletariat only possible by adopting turin communist approach, had to gain support to have control
  • Fiat board encouraging the company become a co-operative (job security)
  • 1900-1910, revolt to reformist policy (syndicalism – fight back of peasants)
  • syndicalism similar to liberalism
  • mass strikes of Po Valley workers (Fiat idea rejected, support of Turin communism and rights of all skills of workers accepted)
  • Reggio Emilia workers were suppressed and supported corporate ideas – Turin communist spoke with them and they reject reformist, corporate position.
  • Rights taken away from less skilled workers, built up the proletariat
  • April 1921, 5000 workers laid off from Fiat and more at Reggio Emilia because they didn’t succumb – did not lose their jobs for nothing
  • Southerners mostly peasants without a common goal so cannot band together to make change
  • Southern intellectuals – rural bourgeoisie, afraid of the peasants
  • Northern priests more in touch with the masses than southern priests – explains why southern peasants have no network of institutions or mass organizations
  • Sardinia – war veteran’s movement, more solid social structure.
  • Sicilian Socialism – much more rich than the rest of the south
  • Southern peasant tied to landowner through the intellectuals
  • Agrarian and intellectual block in the south – either peasants or big landowners/intellectuals, no middle ground
  • Benedetto Croce – national function (connection of intellectuals with bourgeoisie)
  • Intellectuals develop the most slowly in any social group
  • Must create an alliance between proletariat and peasant masses

Megan Trudell: Gramsci

  • War and Transformation
  • WWI unpopular in Italy, “Unified” but not unified
  • expansion of industry, size of working class grows
  • enter into war further divided, social protests begin to rise, strikes encouraged or provoked by soldiers
  • 1917 Russian Revolution encouraged Italians to fight for rights
  • Gramsci importance of these changes
  • Bourgeois state instrument of this violence
  • The ‘biennio rosso’
  • Social unrest sharpened right wring opposition
  • Italian Socialist Party (PSI) increased membership tenfold, Opposed the war, Won 156 seats in the election, Weakened by the big membership
  • Gramsci interested in soviet democracy
  • Knew dual power missing from PSI, Compared revolution to Russia, Institutions to organize entire class, Promise essence of Marxism, Underemphasized revolutionary party
  • Wanted people to accept the electoral challenge
  • Only way to get unity
  • Felt like PSI failed to understand real process
  • Incapable of connection and directing the various struggles
  • BIG MISTAKE- Convinced that the southern peasantry could be liberated from economic misery through alliance with the north


  • Fascism – totalitarian aim to effect an anthropological revolution; Mussolini desired to create a “new man” for the Italian image. Saw themselves as ‘builders of the future.’
  • Risorgimento, movements of nationalism, World War I. Mussolini desired to reshape “traditional defects” of Italians.
  • Mussolini believed you had to start from birth and shape the Italians throughout their lives to change “not only somatic features or height, but also character.” This could be accomplished with a strong leader and a revolution. Utopia-esk.
  • The Fascist principle – the state creates the nation. Took over the lives of Italians from a young age. Everything is the state, everything human or spiritual desire does NOT exist – “citizen soldier”
  • Opera Nazionale Balilla (1926) – laboratory experiment that raised children from birth in an environment to be trained as soldiers for life.
  • Different classes of people established. Two classes: those chosen to be part of the new aristocracy and those raised as docile instruments to work for the totalitarian state.
  • “New woman” was a successful wife and mother who bred many citizen soldiers, but could also be cittadina militante – female militant citizen.
  • 2nd half of the 1930s – anti-bourgeois campaign and intensified racism – strengthened the idea of Fascists and anti-Fascists, not compatible with each other.
  • “New Man” was collective and organized, education by totalitarian pedagogy to identify spontaneously with the community and the state. Freed from individualism and supported collectivism.
  • Mussolini saw the Italian people as his antagonist, the church had softened him. Made their change his life goal until the fall of the regime. Military failure in WWII started to drive him crazy – you can’t turn a people that has been an anvil for 16 centuries into a hammer with one revolution. He felt failed by his people. Succeeded for 2 decades and attracted Italians.


  • Fascist intellectuals tried to draft their party plans at a conference in Bologna that resembled that of the German manifesto that was earlier condemned.
  • Trying to combine intellect of science and mathematics with the complications of politics is overstepping the boundaries of one’s talents.
  • Assigns “religious strife” to the issues with other nations – highlights Italians as the nation of desirable citizens and all others to be “foreigners”
  • Tries to introduce a new faith – very mish-mashed and unorganized. No new ideas. Italy should recognize this disorganization of the regime and become a liberal country not riddled with strife.

Tuesday May 27, 2014


  • Gene culture coevolution is the impact of genes on culture and cultural impacts on genes
  • Has equal importance in natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities
  • The relation between genes and culture is not based on a single trait or gene but the frequency of traits and patterns
  • The principle of varying plasticity or the belief that the development of gene traits is plastic in nature, has a lot of variation
  • All societies follow rules of genetic fitness, the rule that have shaped generations in gene-culture corevolution
  • When a part of the environment is unpredictable, the person is wise to use a mixed strategy achieved by plasticity
  • Changes are brought not by mutations in protein-coding genes, but rather through the changes in regulatory genes
  • Cultural variation in humans is determined by two properties of social behavior: 1) the degree of bias in the epigenetic rule and 2) the likelihood that individual group members imitate others in the same society who have adapted the trait
  • Intricacies of gene-culture corevolution are fundamental in the understanding of the human condition
  • Human beings and their social orders are intrinsically imperfectible, in a constantly changing world we need the flexibility that only imperfection provides
  • Dilemma of good and evil was created by multilevel selection, in which individual selection and group selection act together on the same individual largely in opposition to each other
  • Individual selection is the result of competition for survival and reproduction among members in the same group. It is the differential longevity and fertility of individuals in competition with other members of a group
  • Group selection shapes instincts that tend to make individuals altruistic toward one another it is differential longevity and lifetime fertility of those genes that prescribe traits of interaction among members of the group
  • Individual selection is responsible for much of the sin in the world
  • Group selection is responsible for the greater part of virtue
  • The iron rule exists in genetic social evolution which is that selfish individuals beat altruistic individuals, while groups of altruists beat groups of selfish individuals
  • We still desire the tiny united band-networks that prevailed during the hundreds of millennia proceeding the dawn of human history
  • Emotions of fear come from the amygdala but more complex fearful thoughts about a particular person or object causing emotion come from the information processing centers of the cerebral cortex
  • Humans are unique among animals in the degree that we attend to the sick and injured, help the poor, and comfort the bereaved
  • Beyond just the ordinary instincts of altruism, humans have a sense of honor, a feeling born of innate empathy and cooperativeness
  • With humans sexual intercourse is not simply limited to the purpose of conceiving children
  • Human females have hidden external genetalia and do not advertise estrus, thus differing from females of other primate species
  • Both men and women when together invite frequent intercourse beyond the simple practice of conceiving children, which ensure the woman and man's commitment to one another
  • This constant commitment without any conception is vital in many circumstances

Gramsci: Popular Culture

  • Gramsci believe revolutionary change is a process in which popular mentalities and behaviors are transformed
  • Opera most prominent
  • No real popular culture besides that
  • Detachment of italian intellectuals and people of the simpler classes
  • Problems with popular culture:
    • Illiterate lower class
    • prominence of work from other countries (Russian)
    • Writers do not have the same conception of the world as the readers. They cannot relate with the lower class or the culture.
    • Different interests (women choose the novels, they are not interested in politics)
    • Novels they read are old
  • People are detached and without foundation
  • Not much popular literature has arisen from Italy
  • Church is not successful either with providing popular culture, and this leaves the people with a lack of lively spiritual life.
  • Popular novels:
    • Victor Hugo...political in character
    • Sentimental type...not strictly political
    • Pure intrigue...conservative-reactionary ideological content
    • Historical...political ideological character
    • Detective
    • Gothic..Ghosts, mystery, etc.
    • Geographical, scientific adventure
  • There are very few novelists from Italy, however, many novelists choose to have their stories based in Italy
  • Oratory is popular. It is not only poetry but in a large part theater. It covers not only the popular past but also the urban and rural instances.

Wednesday May 28, 2014

Name, blood and miracles-


  • Origins of Honor stem from oral pacts/verbal agreements
  • Individual and collective honor was the only guarantee of the execution of pacts (fear of loss of honor)
  • People were born into honor or dishonor based on lineage
  • Types of most common original honor: chastity of women, courage in the battlefield, ability to protect possessions (including women), generosity (specifically to those who are most vulnerable), sound intellect and judgement
  • Because honor connects past and future generations, honor is the first visible expression of society's awareness of itself in time and its action going forward into the future
  • The source of acts of honor: Blood and Name
  • Blood is the responsibility of the woman to uphold
  • Name is the responsibility of the man to uphold (he also must ensure the purity of his wife)
  • Woman's honor is based on positive symbols such as menstrual blood, which was believed to have magical powers
  • Men's honor is based on actions performed once adolescence is reached
  • Actions include: courage, defending honor, worthy of family's name, sound judgment
  • Requires frequent action because men are constantly challenging each others' honor
  • As time goes on, actions of men calls for a progressive rising of the stakes
  • Honor offers (limited) mobility)
  • American Dream (from rags to riches)with honor as currency "I want me children to be born with more honor than I was born with"
  • Familial groups build their economic and political strength on the basis of honor
  • Honor is necessary to make dealings with neighbors and other members of a community
  • Honor helps social advancement


  • Grace is honor before the Gods/Saints
  • Key to achieving grace is appeasing the saints
  • Grace is divided into Vow and Miracle
  • Vow is the responsibility of the individual or group of people. They must make offerings and pray to the saint for favor
  • Miracle is the responsibility of the saint. The saint must perform the act of a miracle if the individual has shown devotion and benevolence to the saint
  • The saint has the ability to grant an individual or group a good miracle as well as a terrible punishment
  • Grace creates a unification between the believer and the saint
  • Grace can be achieved through worship, devotion, and good deeds
  • It is the saints job to fulfill his end of the bargain and "listen to his prayers and satisfy his requests"
  • Grace calls for a total recognition of past
  • Unlike honor, grace is accessible to all

Thursday, May 29, 2014


oRemaking Italy: the terrorist strategy

•Terrorism 1970 early 1980’s fractured and fissured
•Both the left and the right
•Neo-Fascist bombing of Bank in Milan to kidnapping of a General
•Terrorists aimed to make and unmake Italy
•Strategy of tension practiced by Mussolini’s men
•Create chaos- strong man had to restore order
•Left wing more complex
•Resistance practice provided justification for acts of violence and murder

oTerrorists were a product of history and society

•Catho-communists- ethic of Catholicism in terrorists ideology
•Disowned by Italian Communist Party
•Red Brigades
•Kidnapping, supreme proof of strategic genius
•Brought back their credibility

Commentary of Accidental Death of an Anarchist (xxxii - xxxix)

  • Escapist, uproarious farce, also hard-hitting political drama – arouse anger over death in custody of an innocent man in 1969 and over a wider crime against democracy committed by the powers that-be in Italy.
  • Operation Gladio – underground organizations who were to focus for resistance in event of some Soviet invasion of western Europe.
  • P2 linked to right-wing terrorism (bombing of Italicus train in 1974).
  • These right-wing groups known as “alternative state” or “state within a state”
  • Coup d’etat in 1967 overthrew Greece – viewed by left as establishment of right-wing regimes all around Mediterranean.
  • “strategy of tension” in Italy was use of indiscriminate killing to create social unrest and desire for repressive measures, calling for electorate to reorganize and put a totalitarian “strong man” in charge.
  • Left preached revolution, right wanted to bring about coup d’etat
  • Massacre of Milan sparked off the events described in the paly (neo-fascists in left-wing terror groups)
  • 1970s, rid brigades began appearing in Milan
  • 1960s in Europe and N. America time of innovations and overturning of established beliefs in politics, arts, and morals.
  • 2 September, Fiat suspended 25,000 workers. Led to strikes and bombings – policeman killed, possibly by a police car.
  • 1969 – divided Italy.
  • 12 December 1969 – bomb at Banca dell-Agricoltura in Piazza Fontana in the center of Mialn. 16 killed, 90 injured. Another device found and exploded by police instead of deactivated (suspicious linkage to the police). 3 bombs in Rome same day.
  • Groups of “blacks” (fascists) continued bombings in revenge of the loss of the war in 1945.
  • Police immediately announced anarchists were behind the bombings (Pino Pinelli). He was arrested and subjected to unfair questioning for 72 hours before “falling” (possibly pushed) from his cell window to his death.
  • Valpreda idenitified as the definite mastermind behind the plan and was wrongly accused.

Monday June 2, 2014


Tuesday June 3, 2014

Fo, Dario, Accidental Death, Commentary, xxxix-xliv.

  • Pino Pinelli controversial death:
    • Pinelli was a nonviolent, family man, believing that common language would lessen risk of conflict.
    • Police stories:
      • Didn't seem like police lunged for him and took his shoe b/c he had both shoes on after the fall.
      • It was winter so why would a window be open?
      • If the window was closed, why couldn't 6 police prevent the leap?
      • versions in general between police were different
      • chief said "I swear we did not kill him"
    • Autopsies:
      • death was due to nothing additional than the fall
      • later autopsy confirmed bruises on neck consistent with blows
    • D'Ambosio published Pinelli had neither been killed nor killed himself, but an active faintness
  • Calabresi the main suspect of those who thought Pinelli was murdered
  • Lotta Continua was a paper that blamed Calabresi for Pinelli's death
  • Adriano Sofri, Ovidio Bompressi, and Giorgio Pietrostefani were accused of murdering Calabresi. They were members of Lotta Continua.
  • Many believe those accused of killing Calabresi are innocent.


  • Poetry style piece to start
  • Claims to know names of the Milan massacre
  • As well the names of those who started anticommunist phase and the antifascist phase
  • "I know. But I do not have the evidence, even the clues."
  • Problem is that journalists and politicians don't name names
    • Intellectuals have the ability to pronounce names, but they have neither the evidence nor the clues
    • Pasolini says that he even though he is an intellectual he does not have the ability to name these names
  • Identifies opposition of power as the Italian Communist Party
    • Calls it Italy's "saving grace"
    • A "Country unto Itself"
  • Bad parts of the Communist Party
    • Divide between peoples of Italy
    • Concern for power will corrupt these men creating similar problems
    • Don't name names because of the distinction between political truth and political practice
  • Believes in formal politics and in democracy
  • If USA will concede to another democracy then these names will be named
    • Problem is that men who pronounce these names share in the power of those men
    • Will be a true coup détat

Wednesday June 4, 2014


  • Maniac character modeled after Harlequin
  • Harlequin is “a-social” and mocks at the heart of what most people deem important honor, logic, common sense, customs.
  • Rebel who pokes fun at those in power
  • He is cunning, scheming, and has no respect for authority
  • Bertozzo inspector who interrogates Pinelli
  • He is the butt of the jokes/humor
  • Idiot, used for laughter
  • Inspector, most likely modeled after Calabresi
  • Person responsible for Pinelli’s death
  • Superintendent based on Marcello Guida, head of police in Milan
  • Constables, foolish bystanders
  • Journalist, Camilla Cederna
  • Plays a completely straight part, takes no part in the comedy
  • Used to make audience start to question the events in question

Act One Scene One

  • The maniac carries on a sarcastic, yet cunning dialog with the inspector
  • He subverts the authority of the idea of credentials and criticizes the power and practice of judges
  • We get the feeling that the Maniac will be judging others throughout the play: talks about the day of judgment and how he has always wanted to be a judge
  • Maniac takes the logic of other characters to the extreme to show their lack of rationailty

Thursday June 5, 2014


  • Fo comes out to introduce his play in which he discusses the background of the play in relation to current events.
  • 2 acts, 3rd act is dialogue between the audience and Fo Dario
  • Franca Rame translates (creates manuscript of the play) – difficult to find central text, where the play is rounded off/completed.
  • 3 major edits to “Accidental Death”
  • Also wrote “can’t pay? Won’t pay!” and “Mum’s Marijuana is Best” to speak to common problems in Italian society.
  • Acted as a counterbalance to misinformation provided to the public about the Milan bombing
  • Does not wish to evoke emotion but political understanding among viewers
  • Fo wrote quickly and had play finished by 1970, approved by board (not easy) and then premiere on Dec. 10, 1970.
  • Same time as Pio Baldelli’s trail (Lotta Continua) for alleging Calabresi responsible for Pinelli’s death
  • Script altered continuously throughout his trial with new revelations about the situation.
  • Maniac is to be found more sane than the criminals (policemen)
  • Fo set out to make his point by focused humor, irony, satire and the use of the grotesque – why the maniac is the main character.
  • The ending is confusing and does not specify how the maniac falls from the window but does show that the “bound” policemen were really free from their handcuffs all along.
  • Fo believes the system (social democracy) stinks and inquiries by a real judge won’t change anything.
  • Later version shows Maniac finding bomb that Bertozzo was to explode and he is going to start a scandal – won’t fix anything but will put the Italians on the same level as other world power democracies.
  • “We are up to the necks in shit, which is why we walk with our heads held high”

Act 1, Scene 2

  • Maniac notes Sports Jacket massaging his hand and asks if he hurt it or if it’s a nervous tick
  • He says at first that it’s a psychological problem, and then concludes he must have given someone a right hander (punch)
  • Maniac doesn’t want to take hat off – Calabresi says he does mind if they close it.
  • Maniac pretends to be the first counsel of the High court, there to find out about the anarchists death. Says he has a twitch when people lie.
  • Maniac wants to speak to superintendent in the same office where the anarchist fell
  • Superintendent is mad at Calabresi when he enters, starts discussing how he doesn’t need any more journalism pegging the police station for the death
  • Thought the anarchist was guilty right from the start but he fell due to a “raptus” (suicidal anxiety that can seize even psychologically normal people)
  • Maniac tells superintendent to reenact his entrance that put the anarchist into the raptus (scare technique)
  • No proof of bombs being planted by the anarchist but the police insisted there was as a tactic.
  • Railway man must have planted bomb at a railway because bombs at a courthouse must be planted by a judge, etc. – makes no logical sense.
  • Anarchist was smiling until they told him he’d lose his job
  • They told him that his friend (the dancer) had confessed to the bombing and then Pinelli went white as a sheet and asked for a cigarette
  • First, he said that Pinelli immediately jumped which was an admission of his guilt
  • Maniac blames superintendent whole-heartedly for Pinelli’s death and says the pair of them are toast – says he’d throw himself out the window if he were them
  • Tries to push them out the window and tells them they’ve been taken by a “raptus”
  • Constable comes in and superintendent and inspector try to tell him that the Maniac was pushing them but the Maniac says they were taken by the raptus and it took nothing to convince them to jump – constable agrees
  • They say that the government is at fault for why they would have jumped, because they want them to create social unrest. Maniac says NO, it’s all his fault! There was no evidence of them being in trouble/losing their jobs. He ‘planted the bomb’ so to speak that almost drove them to jump.
  • Revised version – happened at 8 in the evening, not midnight. The depression then, the fall still at midnight.
  • Judiciary is a “policeman’s best friend … collaborator”
  • Maniac tells them they need to re-write a third version. They say the gave him chewing gum, weren’t there/were there – completely making things up to sound “more believable” and innocent
  • Tells them what they said “this won’t be the death of anarchism” and that they were patting him and comforting him.
  • Wants them to appear more “human” in the story by singing the anarchists favorite song with him - “Nostra patria e il mondo intiero”

Act 2, Scene 1 until the Journalist Enters

  • Setting: In room with sun setting a few pages into the scene
  • Maniac: -Acting as a judge- helping Sports Jacket and Superintendent not receive blame for the death of the anarchist. Makes others look foolish. Brings up problems with their written report (window open, weather, jump so far out the window, ) cast doubt, poke fun, make them feel bad. –act like a captain from Rome -
  • Sports Jacket: Interrogator with jokes, not much help
  • Superintendent: tries to clear things up make sure everyone in good graces with Judge (Maniac)
  • Constable: Grabbed him anarchist by one foot but shoe came off and he fell ← proof trying to save him. BUT both his shoes were on his feet when he fell. LIES!!
  • Journalist- *According to Maniac* mean, touchy,

Monday June 9, 2014

Dario Fo

  • Role of the journalist
    • To provide a more clear understanding of the actual police reports and events that happened historically
    • Another use of satire to get at the hilarious actions of the police on the night of the death of Pinelli and the bombing
    • Give the maniac an opportunity to elaborate the truth hilariously
  • Ending of the play
    • Bertozzo accuses Maniac of being a fake in front of the journalist
    • He admits and then undresses into a Vatican bishop's outfit and says he is Father Augusto Bernier
    • Scandal is good for society gives examples of England and the Vietnam War
    • Maniac is revealed to be a art teacher on leave who has spent time in a mental hospital
    • Threatens to use bomb to blow up the station so that he can use fake recordings for the papers to start Italy on the way to becoming a state developed like the US and England

Piazza Fontana

  • Movie starts in chaos where Antonio Annarumma is murdered
  • Pinelli kicks Valpreda out of the Anarchist club because Vlapreda made it seem like the Anarchists use bombs casually.
  • Rovelli is an anarchist and wants a pub, but Calabresi denies it unless he "whistles." Calabresi wants him as a spy because he thinks the Anarchists are responsible for the bombings.
  • Calabresi comes to see Pinelli and Pinelli is depicted as a family man. Calabresi knows Pinelli kicks Valpreda out which informs Pinelli that they have a rat.
  • Calabresi finds pinelli again and questions him. He seems to think Pinelli is violent and is behind the bombings. Pinelli tries to convince him otherwise in the book store.
  • December 12, 1969 a bomb blows up the national bank of agriculture and an Anarchist poster is left
  • Calabresi and men are convinced that it was Valpreda. All the Anarchists are called in for questioning
  • Guido watches the review of the bombing
  • Pinelli didn't tell Calabresi that he went to meet Sottosanti to cash a check which makes it suspicious
  • Pinelli says he is nonviolent. it seems like they are accusing him and want him to sign a paper saying Valpreda did it. Pinelli refuses.
  • The police make a fake story up saying Valpreda confessed to see what Pinelli will say. Pinelli is insistent they are not involved. Calabresi leaves, the police rough him up. they hear a bang.
  • Pinelli "jumps" off the balcony, Calabresi is not in the room
  • Others claim they tried to stop him
  • All officers agree to tell journalists he fell without any investigation or interrogation
  • Journalist interviews of Calabresi cause a lot of doubt and no straight story about the death of Pinelli
  • Pinelli's funeral many anarchists are present holding their fists in the air
  • Mrs. Pinelli files report refuting Pinelli's involvement in the bombing and intentions of suicide
  • Professor asked to wear a wire to record Ventura's words
  • Trail against Pinelli is long and drawn out--Mrs. Pinelli accuses him of being a liar
  • Document discovered that shows the ministry lied about Calabresi being apart of the CIA


  • President Napolitano
  • Calabresi
  • Guido: head of police
  • Alegra: head of police
  • Moro: administer of foreign affairs
  • Pinelli
  • Ventura
  • Officer Penesa
  • Valpreda: thought to have planted the bomb
  • Rovelli: anarchist who is a rat
  • Sottosanti
  • Feltrinelli
  • Mrs. Pinelli
  • Mrs. Calabresi


  • Pinelli and Valpreda argue in the beginning. They do not seem close.
  • Calabresi seems very suspicious of Anarchist actions before the bombing. He questions Pinelli a lot about it. Tone seems accusatory on Calabresi's side and defensive on Pinelli's
  • Calabresi responsible for interrogation of Pinelli
  • Officer Penesa and others are present in the room when Pinelli "jumps"
  • Pinelli is friends with anarchist Valpreda who is seen as lead suspect of bombing
  • Alegra and Guido oversee the police work done on the investigation of Pinelli

Tuesday June 10, 2014

Stille, Television and Money

  • TV before Berlusconi
  • No advertising of pet food, embarrassing products
  • Advertising soliciting
  • Paternalistic -- and reflected religious commitment
  • Political control -- different channels for different.
  • Berlusconi's strategy
  • buying local stations, skirting law by varying transmission times
  • TV for Milano 2
  • small radio
  • hires away M. Buongiorno -- game show
  • advertising drives programming -- buys American shows
  • Veline -- female character. Vanna
  • Willing to do things that weren't explicitly prohibited
  • Political Connections
  • Craxi - Berlusconi
  • Craxi -- "socialist" in name, but mostly to distinquish from Communist and Christian Democrats
  • Tangentopoli scandal -- Bribesville 1990s
  • p2 Lodge
  • 1st Berlusconi era 1994

The Changing Face of Media

  • Discusses the impact (good and bad) of the Berlusconi years on Italian media and politics
  • Difficult to distinguish between Berlusconi the entrepreneur and the politician
  • As an entrepreneur he was innovative and creative
  • He revolutionized the way in which Italians experience TV
  • The "Wild West" that was the TV market allowed him to monopolize the private TV market because a lack of govt. regulation
  • His media empire includes: TV, cinema, radio, publishing, Marketing firms, banks, insurance groups, and financial firms
  • Berlusconism Contradiction:
  1. His reign brought significant innovation in technological advancement and lifestyle changes (new man)
  2. Problems emerged from his monopolized media and his political career. Conflict of interest: 1)Using political power for personal gain 2)Using personal power or political gain "principal instrument for obtaining the results he wants" . Mistrust of government by public from Berlusconi's abuse of power.
  • Reforms, if any, that were made were poor and ineffective.
  • Watchdog for equal access to media for campaigns was ignored b/c disciplinary action was delayed until after election (no incentive for following rules)
    • Effect of the Berlusconi years on Italy's media
  • Berlusconi is both an entrepreneur and a politician
  • He founded three TV channels and used his marketing experience for his political campaign
  • As a politician he is obligated to regulate the media, but as an entrepreneur he wants to maximize profits
  • Media can sway public opinion as well as make money
  • Berlusconi used the media to get what he wanted as a politician
  • Radical parties "anti-Fininvest referendums"
  • Repeal law which permitted the concentration of three networks in the hands of private operators
  • 56 percent of voters voted against repeal, possibly due to Berlusconi's media power
  • Gasparri law seen as "ad personam" legislation
  • Law limited profits of media companies and made them define their positions within the SIC
  • Berlusconi's "modernization" of the media is incomplete
  • Public opinion, both internationally and in the EU, is pushing for more regulated and modern media system in Italy

Wednesday June 11, 2014


  • Starts from 2009 earthquake leaving the town of Aquila in ruins (309 victims, more than 1500 wounded, damages estimated to have reached costs of 10 billions)
  • Investigate into Berlusconi's involvement in the city and speculative emergency policies run by "Protezione Civile" (civil protection) headed at the time by Guido Bertolaso
  • Bersluconi's legal cases, bunga bunga parties and Ruby scandal2009
  • Marcello d'Utri condemned for Mafia
  • Guzzanti dresses up as Berlusconi and satirises the exploitation of the earthquake as was to reconstruct B's image and consensus
  • Berlsucini brings shame on Italy; Obama, Merkel, Gadaffi
  • Parallel to exploitative reconstruction in Calabria San Giuliano
  • Guido bertolaso considered 3rd most important person
  • Local administration excluded from decision making
  • People in hotels and tent cities
  • G8 moved to Aquila, airport built despite money invested in Sardegna
  • Returns so Aquila; Promises to bring the veline (showgirls)
  • Professor Colapetra remains in town, resisting intimidations; citizens express Sense of being held prisoners
  • Civil protections has all power, runs emotional massacre; no coffee alcohol coke paternalism, no protest banners nor public assembly meetings
  • Only government approved journalist can attend events; Berlusconi at a school; Documentary project obstacled
  • Ordinance is modified; Emergency/special events
  • parallel to waste emergency case in Napoli; citizens protest against Militarisation of city
  • Civil protection take take of swimming championship; work around the law to assign public contracts
  • Work overseen by civil protections as emergency are paid by the public
  • Construction, excessive costs and in areas excluded by building regulations
  • Another way of life is reinforced in different housing
  • Difficult to make opposition; would create an alibi for the failure to construct houses within the timeline
  • Protesting citizens left alone, PD tent is empty
  • Houses only for a 1/3 of the people left homeless; some live in hotel, solitude
  • September, first houses after 5 months
  • Berlusconi avoided Antonio Ingroia's questions regarding origins to funding
  • Giancimino, son of jailed Casa Nostra boss, reveals his father's investment in Milano 2; B speech about the antimafia work of his government
  • Civil protection "interviews": People forced to leave tens without alternative housing, threatened with loss of light and food,if they protest
  • Taped phone calls reveals speculation in the catastrophe, prostitution ring and corruption by the Civil protection under Bertolaso
  • Distribution of 10 billions of Euros
  • No prevention work, despite seismic activity and warnings, useless meeting declares normality of the situation
  • Citizens Victims of disinformation

Thursday June 12, 2014

Monday June 16, 2014

Chapter 1

  • Italy is free – can do what they choose. Cannot attain goals that they would like to pursue, however (unable to live in security, enjoy education worthy of name, have adequate health care, etc.)
  • Previous thoughts on liberty – no interference from other men
  • Positive liberty (having control over every decision we make) is a disguise for tyranny. True liberty is negative.
  • Fernando Savater – liberty refers to a situation in which there are no physical, psychological or legal impediments that prevent us from acting in the way we wish to act” – this is not a liberty of citizens, but a liberty of servants
  • The masters of sovereigns are not all the same – some slaves may be able to do as they please, while others are less fortunate.
  • Liberty of citizens involves not being hindered or dominated. Not subjected to arbitrary power of one who can do as he pleases.
  • Italians are not interfered with, but there is the possibility of being oppressed in the current system – man can beat his wife if he chooses, student gets job based off of caprices of their professor, citizens can be thrown in jail at anytime.
  • Not hindered, but in a condition of dependency (servants not citizens)
  • Cicero – liberty does not consist in having a good master but in having no master at all.
  • Liberty over laws (liberty through or in virtue of laws)
  • Medici – citizen more powerful than the laws
  • Liberty of subjects (liberty from laws)
  • Necessary for citizens to perceive the danger of a man taking too much power before it is too late, must identify best ways to defend common good
  • Citizens must act in accordance with virtue to have true liberty

Chapter 2

oOnly free in the sense of the liberty of servants
oMoney was a key factor in Berlusconi’s control
•Ability to distribute favors, owe favors → control
•Conquer votes and power
oPower only useful when used effectively
oCourt’s most important reason for existence is practice of servitude
o“A complete servant is one who abandons his soul and dons the soul of the signore in its place”
oMachiavelli understood how a court system could operate in the shadows of republican institutions
o(Threat of) violence played only a small role, no oppression no coercion nothing prevented- everyone free
•Yet man above at the center with people who serve his will
oShift of mood or determination and can cause rights to disappear
oDifference between servitude that was sought and that that was forced
•Sought servitude servants do not aspire to have the liberty of the citizen
•Questioned the quality of life
oSimilarity between the centrality of the control of Berlusconi and the court system
•Everything rotates around them
oThe inner workings of power into society do not change
oBerlusconi is the leader of the stage of the court
oG8 summit- huge fake façade
oTreaty NATO and Russia- artificial reality
oItalian Parliament- theater for him to rule
oCourtesans- used to be non existent now in greater demand
oRole of women is to brighten the lives of the signore and the courtiers with their charms

Chapter 2 Footnotes

Chapter 2 Footnotes

  • Harold Laski – business tycoons who become politicians
  • No one who has been a business man (Bonar Law, Loucheur) has achieved the same influence as those who were just great politicians (Washington, Lincoln, etc) – people know that their interests are not for the public, but in money-making.
  • He does whatever it takes to buy up the resources available to him in order to fulfill his genuine belief that he has the divine right to rule
  • Forza Italia has such an advantage of resources that it is difficult to call the system truly democratic
  • Inferno and paradise coexisted at court
  • Helpful divisions to republics – maintained w/o sects and partisans
  • Private modes of reputation gain involve sects/partisans
  • Partisans should not follow someone for their own utility – this ensures a system in which everyone is watched, and so civil bounds are not transgressed

Tuesday June 17, 2014

Chapter 3

  • fear and servility are signs of a servants dependency
  • safety and security are the mark of political liberty
  • Berlusconi used his wealth to persuade to gain power instead of fear
  • Journalists vamp up Berlusconi. They make him seem great and are servants
  • Berlusconi would be fine to brag by himself
  • "the court is a temple of falsehood, taken in the narrowest sense as a deliberate attempt to conceal the truth"
  • Left rules the parliament
  • "the courtier is devoted to pleasing the prince without being in a inept flatterer but rather a modest and reserved adulator"
  • to be a flatterer you must flatter but also be modest about it and also insult the person who you are flattering's enemies
  • the prince looks for people who are morally corrupt.
  • corruption reigns where sovereign powers encourage it
  • Money is the motivation, where people will break laws to gain it
  • the good people are blamed as fools and the corrupt are praised
  • courtier has an eagerness to recruit men who have broken laws
  • US fires people who commit fraud, where Italy praises it
  • thought to have 90 people in parliament who are corrupt. This makes it easy to make laws that are corrupt.
  • laws protect courtiers.

Chapter 4

  • Italians have a history of inventing their own political systems and parties
  • Italians have historically cherished servitude and those who support it tend to flourish
  • Servants sense the paltry nature and futility of their condition in life, but lack the wit and the courage to face despair head on
  • True Italian vice = the lack of inner liberty
  • Inner liberty is the belief that a man's life is so precious that it can never be sold to another man
  • Rosselli attributes a lack of inner liberty as to why fascism sprung forth and endured in Italy
  • Many anti-fascists laid responsibility for Italian moral weakness on the church
    • Believe so strongly in purgatory because they know if they pray for those there now then it is likely that they will be prayed for in purgatory too
    • Don't care very much about Jesus Christ in their faith
  • Italian are morally weak because they do not recognize the authority of conscience
  • The birth of the Italian Republic could not save Italy from it's own moral weakness
  • Necessary to understand that in all societies, in any from of government, a minority overtakes a majority according to Mosca
    • "A hundred men acting uniformly in concert will overtake a thousand men who are not in accord"
  • In a system of representative democracy it is quite easy to do what Berlusconi did
  • In the case of Berlusconi, however, there was no political class capable of fighting his power democratically
  • Example of the Lapua Movement in Finland
  • Those who did not stop Berlusconi during his reign failed in their duty to preserve and reinforce republican life in Italy
  • When the Constitution is brought into question then it is the people's duty to stand up and fight
  • The quest for agreement politically alienates the militants - pushing them to extreme positions
  • Political intransigence leads to militants and militants lead to votes
  • Uses example of Craxi's scandals to show that the people don't always have a sense of who they should trust or vote for politically in Italy
  • Seems an oxymoron that those who admire Craxi scorn Berlusconi because Craxi supported the idea of a fair vote from the Constitution
  • Sansonetti article calls for a law ad personum, which would prevent Previti from leaving prison
  • Admiration for Berlusconi, moral submissiveness, and absence of republican culture all work to favor Berlusconi

Wendnesday June 18, 2014

Chapter 5 -Part I (113-130)

  • Throughout history Italians, once they have "developed a healthy scorn for the life of the coutier," have succeeded in returning to a state of liberty after servitude
  • Lists defeat of Fascism as an example
  • Negative aspects of a court system include: perverted ideas, encourage ignorance, corrupt morals, promotes greed, etc.
  • Viroli can't envision an Italy that completely abandons the court system
  • More realistic is to have a court system shrink in power due to power grabs by courtiers
  • This would lead to less servility, flattery, corruption, etc. And lead to a reawakening of the civic conscience
  • Not a true emancipation
  • Thinks change needs to be social, not political because new laws are useless against a man who is above the law (Berlusconi)
  • In contrast, the US has made laws that limit media owners from entering politics who will have a conflict of interest (Bloomberg)
  • Italy has no such laws
  • Italians must rediscover or relearn the job of being a active citizen
  • 1st step of reawakening begins with understanding the value and beauty of civic duties
  • One must also realize that duties and rights make up liberties
  • Rights must be limited so they can exit for everyone: "What rights would other people ever have, if we did not feel the duty to recognize them, thereby restricting our own liberty with a rule"
  • Duty shouldn't be/can't be ordered "you must feel that you must"
  • Separates obligations and duties (similar to the way Mill divides perfect and imperfect duties)
  • Duties are commanded from our conscience; Obligations are commanded from an authority
  • By performing duties, one establishes a "moral liberty"
  • In both Totalitarian regimes and court systems, a moral liberty is the enemy
  • Therefore, a rebirth from servility to liberty must be moral before it can be political or military
  • Italy's Risorgimentos have been successful because they have acted out of duty and moral liberty
  • Viroli accounts lack of citizenship to the declining written culture: 2/3 of Italians read neither books nor newspapers
  • Large part of population (~40%) are illiterate (
  • Those who can't read are unable to understand important texts that have messages about civic duties

Chapter 5 Part 2

  • Should bring books to the people to enhance their liberty
  • All Italians should read the Constitution of the Italian Republic
  • Constitution guarantees citizens rights but expects fundamental duties to be fulfilled (ex political, economic and social responsibilities
  • Defense of country is a sacred duty that demands self sacrifice
  • All citizens have the duty to be loyal to the Republic.
  • Public officers have a duty to act with discipline and honor. They are servants to the nation
  • Decisions must not be guided by interests of a political party, friends, etc.
  • If this happens, the weak will have to submit to the arrogance of the powerful
  • Necessary for citizens to be educated and understand the function of the political system
  • Italians are poor ethical thinkers. Excuse unethical behavior by those in power. Result is that the immoral and dishonest are rewarded
  • Poor ethical thinkers can only live as servants. Without moral guidance the political and economic system will collapse
  • Anger towards those doing wrong is moral and justified

Movie Notes

  • TV is an incredible power
  • TV gives us a false/surreal view of women
  • Not only do they make the only image of women to be an image of sex, but a fake image that the majority of women cannot live up to
  • Women are decorations
  • Women are having trouble identifying their own needs; therefore, they can't identify themselves
  • Women are seen as a product to a TV company
  • Our face is an image of our vulnerability

Thursday June 19, 2014

Wood and Farell

  • Church emphasized family and women’s role in it, political crises 1960s-1970s led to forceful feminist movement in the west.
  • Mazzini thought, in the Risorgimento, that women should be released from ignorance and servitude, but should still play the role of a mother to her family.
  • Women could not own property w/o husband’s consent, had little control over their children legally, and could easily be charged with adultery while men were free to have affairs.
  • Exploitative working conditions for women – made up most of the workforce
  • Questione femminile: improvement of women’s education and workers rights. Radical, Socialist, and Catholic Feminists all differed on opinions of family and divorce but agreed on improving education, addressing prostitution, regulated working conditions, and maternity leave.
  • Suffrage was considered too dangerous to ask for, so women just requested wages to live on. 1913 – suffrage expanded but not to women (Gentiloni pact)
  • Mozzoni believed women should have absorption in modern progressive state through work, education, and divorce. Appealed to bourgeois women to stray from their structured domestic role.
  • Failure to win suffrage in 1912 caused drop in fight for emancipation and lost in the rise of Fascism.
  • Fascism more successful than Risorgimento in that it created a united an powerful nation-state, able to compete on the international stage.
  • Population growth failed and so women had to resort to taking labor jobs rather than professional work
  • Women entered body politic after fall of Mussolini – suffrage in 1946 (local) and 1948 (national)
  • Union of Italian Women grew and caused dissatisfaction with traditional roles of women
  • Achievements of new feminism: organize on large scale, national nurseries and family-planning, equal pay and maternity leave, equal authority w/in family.
  • Abortion and divorce major issues fought for in 1970s
  • Neo-feminism less active – looks to bridge the gap between theoretical philosophical analysis and active political engagement between genders
  • Women sought to develop relationships with other women rather than push for equality because men couldn’t look past their sexual differences
  • No longer clear objectives for today’s feminism but still focus on sexual harassment and violence

• Intro

oMasculine and feminine in language- inanimate objects
oLanguage creates first symbolic order
•Does not judge, discriminate

•Uccio’s Difference

oBrother after 2 sisters
oNot ask why, asked about knowability
•Better to have not have asked at all
oNo words for genitals
oEthics only concerns human beings
oOnly people in history books were men and goddess
•First thought of feminism was not of sexual difference but women in history
•Scattered that could fit in a wheelbarrow
•Has to fight so that the most basic rights of citizenship are recognized to it
•History resists the insertion of women’s history and women’s difference. They do not interact
•Not solved by labeling it minor
oIf people do not act, putting women in history or explaining sexual difference, it will not happen on its own
oHuman reality never resets itself
•Challenge is that, by starting all over again, we may gain or gain back our heritage both men and women
oEthics and historicity- quest for something other, spurred on by a lack of being

•Beyond Equality

oAsymmetry between the two sexes
oSuspend corrective counter judgments utter on behalf of an ideal justice that imputes women’s marginality to men’s domination
oSymbolic order of the mother
•Everyone born of a woman
oWomen are not an antithesis, but movement on a different level
oDoes not start with doing justice to women in relation to men nor with a politics of rights
oTreated as less than equal but seek relationships of difference- puzzled by thrust toward equality
•Creating the illusion of symmetry
oIntervention and fight at the same time- free sense of sexual difference
•Between everyone men to women, men to men, women to women
oSexual difference defines roles, obligations, and stereotypes

•In View of Something Other

oPhilosophers do not ignore or give thought of sexual difference
•It is just a fact
oDasein exists for the sake of itself
oAssumption of neutrality
•Man is both a man and a neutral human being

•For a “Symbolic” of Difference

oAsymmetry between the sexes
•Conflict between those who think that the asymmetry is not translatable into free forms etc.
oContract never existed between nature and culture- no possibility to establish it
•Leap from inorganic and organic life- world full of history stories words and problems
oStart with a symbolic revolution

Monday June 23, 2014


  • the Mediterranean area has an honor and shame system, which is different from other areas that have it because there is a difference in sexuality and its control
  • honor and shame integrate an individual to a group where public opinion determines reputation
  • men's honor comes from keeping the women's sexuality in place
  • "women are the weak link in masculine virtue"
  • honor and shame are used to oppress women
  • economic resources aid in familial honor
  • in poverty, female chastity was valuable to survive
  • male God and male prophets, relegating females to subsidiary roles and minimizing their contributions to reproduction
  • gender identity and orientation are related but different
    • identity is self-awareness, conscious or unconscious. maleness and femaleness
    • orientation is the gender-specific behavior one displays in public according to cultural expectations
  • male and female is defined
  • male is defined in negative terms, which are opposite of feminine
  • men must not be feminine and must prove their performance and masculinity must be earned. when men are shamed, they are emasculated.
  • men rivalries are for food, women, and power and are intensified by erotic dimensions
  • masculinity is related to genitalia
  • boys must take sometimes painful rights of passage into manhood
  • honor and shame are rituals of manhood


  • Criminal law often an indicator of a country's values
  • Women in Italy have been commonly asked to conform
    • 'Honest' women were those that married, didn't work, and took care of the kids
    • Catholic concept of Mary contributed to this
  • Divorce not possible in Italy until 1970
  • Brothels legal until 1958
  • Sexual honor can only be maintained or lost
  • Rocco Code was a means of protecting individual honor
  • According to Maria Manfreddi marriage was seen as the best thing that could happen to women
  • In Italy women are seen on spectrum ranging from modesty with no sexual desires to someone to be exploited
  • Article 29 of Italian Constitution says that marriage is based on the moral and judiciary equality of the spouses
  • Article 587 of Rocco Code enables considerations of "cause of honor" in homicide or physical injuries
    • Can even be used on wives who "aren't entirely convinced" (means mistress)
  • Many newspaper articles of honor killings were husbands killing their wives because they had "dishonored" them
  • Not always acceptable for the woman to do the same in situations of honor with the man
  • Changing of articles through court system finally abolished the "consideration of honor" in killing in 1989
  • Rocco Code also referred to "consideration of honor" with abortion, infanticide and desertion of minors

Tuesday June 24, 2014


Wednesday June 25, 2014

Victims of a Criminal Act of Love

  • Acid attack: The sulphuric acid commonly used in these attacks burns flesh and bones quickly, causing terrible pain during and after the attack.
  • Mostly carried out by a paid third party (Paid for by disgruntled male)
  • Results: Eating and drinking become difficult. The victim often loses her sight, even if only in one eye, and often feels marginalized by society and psychologically fragile.
  • There are at least 1,500 acid attacks every year, not to mention all the cases that are not reported. In 80% of the reported cases the victim is female; 40% are under the age of 18. It’s a phenomenon that, although still marginal in Europe, is increasing in countries such as Greece and Britain.

Thursday June 26, 2014