- 1 Human Trafficking/Child Labor Definitions
- 2 General Human Trafficking and Child Labor Background/Articles
- 2.1 Child Labor Public Education Project
- 2.2 Human Trafficking: Past and Present
- 2.3 Human Trafficking
- 2.4 Child Labour
- 2.5 Child Labor: Children Who Sell Themselves
- 2.6 Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending immigration benefits to protect the victims of trafficking and to secure the prosecution of traffickers
- 3 Human Trafficking/Child Labor Organizations
- 4 Specific Modern Examples
- 4.1 Laboe, Barbara. Longview Couple sentenced in human trafficking case
- 4.2 Cambodian woman sentenced in human trafficking case
- 4.3 Importance of Work Permits for Minors
- 4.4 $15 million grant to help fight Child Labor in the Philippines
- 4.5 The Issue of Human Trafficking in Spokane/Eastern Washington
- 4.6 Child Labor in North America versus South America/Asia
- 5 Human Trafficking/Child Labor in the US
- 5.1 Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. "Hidden in Plain Sight: Human Trafficking in the United States."
- 5.2 Religion and Politics: BUSH TO OBAMA
- 5.3 Clinton, Remarks on the Release of the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report
- 5.4 US child labor violations in the retail and service industries: findings from a national survey of adolescents
- 5.5 Failed US Policy on Human Trafficking
- 5.6 Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the US
- 5.7 UN Protocol
- 5.8 Trafficking in Persons Report
- 6 Sex Trafficking
- 6.1 Sex-trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-based Sex Workers in other Countries
- 6.2 Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States
- 6.3 Human Sex Trafficking
- 6.4 Sexual Slavery
- 6.5 The first modern anti-slavery law: The Trafficking Victims Act of 2000
- 6.6 Who are the traffickers?
- 6.7 Feminist Dissertation
- 6.8 Conflicts Between Feminist Perceptions of Global Trafficking in Women
- 6.9 Anti-Human Trafficking Stances
Human Trafficking/Child Labor Definitions
CIA, Human Trafficking Defined
Finding Persons-CIA, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in. "Human Trafficking Defined." Definition. 2008. <http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2008/105487.htm>
Summary There is not much text on this site, but it provides a great chart that allows you to see what constitutes/qualifies as human trafficking. Credible source and easy to read.
What Is Child Labor?
"What Is Child Labour?." Anti-Slavery. Anti-Slavery International, n.d. Web. 24 Oct 2011. <http://www.antislavery.org/english/slavery_today/child_labour.aspx>.
Summary Easily outlines what child labor and child trafficking is and the gravity of the problem. It also describes where and why children work.
Finding "HUMAN Trafficking." Hispanic 2007: 46,46-48. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 24 Oct. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/237010693?accountid=1557>
Summary This is kind of long, and the headnote is okay to skip (it's just a dramatization of an example, and there's hardly any substance). But it defines human trafficking well, and gives great specific examples.
General Human Trafficking and Child Labor Background/Articles
Child Labor Public Education Project
Finding What Is Child Labor? - The Child Labor Education Project." Division of Continuing Education - The University of Iowa. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.continuetolearn.uiowa.edu/laborctr/child_labor/about/what_is_child_labor.html>.
Summary This article gives background information on child labor and what it is. It is informative on the different kinds of labor, and statistics on where it is most commonly found. There are links from this article that include child labor in the U.S, causes of child labor, U.S laws, health issues, global economy, ect.
Human Trafficking: Past and Present
Finding and Link Ryf, Kara C. "The First Modern Anti-Slavery Law: The Trafficking Victims Act of 2000." Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 34.1 (2002): 45,45-71. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/211157724/1329E7DC6BD57EE8115/1?accountid=1557
Summary This is a great source of information. It analyses the growth in slavery, and the gives present-day statistics as well as background on the history of human trafficking. It's extremely detailed, and a bit long, but very useful information as a whole.
Finding "Human Trafficking." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Trafficking>.
Summary General information on human trafficking from the main wikipedia page. A wide range of topics dealing with the issue. Worth reading for some good background knowledge.
Finding "Child Labour." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_labor>.
Summary Wikipedia page on child labor. Based on historical, present day, recent incidents, and defense of child labor. Once again, worth reading.
Child Labor: Children Who Sell Themselves
Finding Faleiro, Sonia. "Children Who Sell Themselves." The New York Times. 6 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/07/opinion/07iht-edfaleiro07.html?_r=1&ref=childlabor>
Summary This is an article from the New York Times, it ties into both child labor and human trafficking. It is about the personal experience of a young boy who willingly offers himself to traffickers because he can no longer take going hungry.
Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending immigration benefits to protect the victims of trafficking and to secure the prosecution of traffickers
Finding Haynes, Dina. "Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending Immigration Benefits to Protect the Victims of Trafficking and to Secure the Prosecution of Traffickers." Human Rights Quarterly 26.2 (2004): 221-72. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.
Summary This article addresses human trafficking in Europe, organized crime that is behind it, and what is done in regards to immigration.
Human Trafficking/Child Labor Organizations
CNN Freedom Project
Summary This is the webpage that CNN has to hold all of their data about eliminating human trafficking in the world. This includes current efforts, news articles, facts and informative pages with a selection of both general and specific information.
The Polaris Project
Summary Webpage for a leading U.S. anti-human trafficking organization. Describes every action being taken against human trafficking in the project, gives an overview of what human trafficking is and what it means globally and locally, and informs the reader about how to get involved in the anti-human trafficking movement.
Summary Webpage for an anti-human trafficking website that goes into detail about the suffering and organizations in each country worldwide. It's key purpose is raising awareness, so it involves general and detailed articles separated by country.
STOP THE TRAFFIK
Summary This is an organization that focuses on stopping the sale of people and promotes efforts to give humans a better life. They have a webpage full of background information and current efforts to help those impacted by human trafficking.
The International Labour Organization
"About the ILO." The International Labor Organization. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct 2011. <http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/lang--en/index.htm>.
Summary The ILO is an international organization that regulates working standards. The organization also advocates working rights, employment opportunities, and social protection. Its members include government officials, employers, and workers to establish fair labor policies and programs.
Free the Slaves
Summary A TED talk about slavery by Kevin Bales, leader of the Free the Slaves movement discussing the dangerous and horrific consequences of slavery.
Specific Modern Examples
Laboe, Barbara. Longview Couple sentenced in human trafficking case
Finding and Link LaBoe, Barbara. "Longview couple sentenced in human trafficking case." 19 October 2011. The Daily News. October 22 2011 <http://tdn.com/news/local/article_d41d8986-fabc-11e0-b0b0-001cc4c002e0.html>.
Summary This article is from my hometown is a perfect example of how close to home this issue is. This article is mainly informative as to the actions that are being taken and the human trafficking scheme that occurred.
Cambodian woman sentenced in human trafficking case
Finding and Link "Rare Success Against Trafficking ; Thailand Sentences a Cambodian Woman to 50 Years in Jail for Trafficking Eight Women." The Christian Science Monitor: 06. ProQuest. Mar 23 2005. Web. 24 Oct. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/405675582?accountid=1557>
Summary This article gives a specific example of a woman in Thailand sentenced to fifty years for trafficking women. An interesting case, since the general assumption is that men traffic these young women, but it is an apparently gender-neutral issue. Although this is not close to home, it is a specific example, and rare (most human trafficking cases are never tried).
Importance of Work Permits for Minors
Cook, Rachel. "Minors need work permits for most jobs." Bakersfield.com. The Bakersfield Californian, 24 Oct 2011. Web. 24 Oct 2011. <http://www.bakersfield.com/news/local/x860822436/Minors-need-work-permits-for-most-jobs>.
Summary This article reports about a teenager's death while working. The article emphasizes the importance of work permits and reinforces the permits' requirements. Slightly discourages child labor when it raises the question of why the victim was working instead of attending school.
$15 million grant to help fight Child Labor in the Philippines
Finding Mabasa, Roy C. "$15-M Grant to Help Fight Child Labor | The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online." Mb.com.ph | The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/336967/15m-grant-help-fight-child-labor>.
Summary The United States awarded a $15 million grant to the Philippines to help them fight against child labor, especially in the sugarcane growing regions of the country.
The Issue of Human Trafficking in Spokane/Eastern Washington
Finding and Link "HUMAN SMUGGLING A LOCAL ISSUE; Workshop Examines Spokane's 'Hidden Slave Culture';" Spokesman Review: B.1. Washington State Newsstand. Oct 08 2005. Web. 24 Oct. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/395019861?accountid=1557>
Summary This articles gives excellent insight into the human trafficking issue in Spokane and Eastern Washington. This is an eye-opener as it's extremely close to home, and the way it's written echoes the woes of many American cities who are riddled with the human trafficking issue.
Child Labor in North America versus South America/Asia
Zipp, Yvonne. "Child Labors to Free Child Laborers Twelve-Year-Old Boy Determines to Free Millions of Exploited Children." The Christian Science Monitor: 21. ProQuest. Feb 18 1999. Web. 24 Oct. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/405637939?accountid=1557>.
Summary Human-rights organizers visit Thailand and experience first-hand the child workers. The abusive effects of child labor prompts the travelers to write "Free the Children" and begs the question: why child labor unacceptable for North American kids but not for children in places like Thailand and Brazil?
Human Trafficking/Child Labor in the US
Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. "Hidden in Plain Sight: Human Trafficking in the United States."
MLA and Link Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. "Hidden in Plain Sight: Human Trafficking in the United States." Gender Issues 27.1-2 (2010): 1,1-26. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/856587758/1329C7CA7F17808E717/8?accountid=1557
Summary/Reconstruction Research article on human trafficking. Gives key words for further research. Describes human trafficking in the US, but also discusses the trafficking in other nations. States how there are both similarities and differences in human trafficking between nations. Doesn't matter geographical location or if the country is 1st, 2nd, or 3rd world- human trafficking still exists.
Religion and Politics: BUSH TO OBAMA
FindingZimmerman, Yvonne C. "Religion and Politics BUSH TO OBAMA." Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion (Indiana University Press) 26.1 (2010): 79-99. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=aab78b96-f132-4e15-81a3 2b65f6fc657e%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=112
SummaryZimmerman’s journal publication “Religion and Politics: Bush to Obama” displays his recommendations to the Obama administration to remove Christian bias from Human Trafficking regulations in order to more successfully combat such movements. His entire list of recommendations is targeted at the Obama administration while remaining informative to any other individuals that may happen to read his article.
Clinton, Remarks on the Release of the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report
Finding Clinton, Hillary Rodham. "Remarks on the Release of the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report." DC: US Department of State, 27 June 2011 <http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2011/06/167156.htm>
Summary This website provides Secretary Clinton's speech in response the the 2011 Global Report on Human Trafficking. She speaks of global efforts, the views of the US, and the improvements of conditions. She gives personal examples and emphasizes the community effort to eliminate this problem from our society.
US child labor violations in the retail and service industries: findings from a national survey of adolescents
Finding JM Bowling, et al. "US child labor violations in the retail and service industries: findings from a national survey of working adolescents." American Journal of Public Health 98.9 (2008): 1693-1699. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. EBSCO. Web. 24 Oct. 2011.
Summary This article is about child labor violations among U.S teenagers working in the retail and services industries. It shows percentages of workers who have violated hazardous occupation orders.
Failed US Policy on Human Trafficking
Finding Potocky, Miriam. "The Travesty of Human Trafficking: A Decade of Failed U.S. Policy." Social work 55.4 (2010): 373,373-5. ProQuest. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/759964707?accountid=1557
Summary This article highlights the fact the United States has focused their policy more on antiprostitution than antislavery as human trafficking has surfaced more constantly. This is a politically biased article, however provides good insight into our people's multiple perspectives on the topic and how to handle it.
Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the US
Finding Kotrla, K. (2010). Domestic minor sex trafficking in the united states. Social Work, 55(2), 181-181-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/193904157?accountid=1557
Summary This article has a great background to how human trafficking has influenced the minors of our country including a definition of DMST and statistics as to how common it is in our nation.
"Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography." OHCHR Homepage. OHCHR. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc-sale.htm>.
Summary This webpage outlines the UN protocol for child trafficking, prostitution, and pornography.
Trafficking in Persons Report
"Trafficking in Persons Report." U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/index.htm>.
Summary This webpage explains the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report in the U.S. The sight also contains links to previous reports as well as other information about trafficking under the U.S. Department of State, including legislation.
Sex-trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-based Sex Workers in other Countries
MLA and Link Sarkar, Kamalesh, et al. "Sex-Trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-Based Sex Workers of Eastern India, Adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh." Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 26.2 (2008): 223,223-31. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/202993576/1329EACEDCC5AAE047/1?accountid=1557
Summary This article has many great statistics about violence, negotiation, and infections related to women of all ages in brothel-based sex work. The study was taken from women from India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bandladesh.
Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States
MLA and Link Kotrla, Kimberly. "Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States." Social work 55.2 (2010): 181,181-7. ProQuest. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/193904157/1329EACEDCC5AAE047/2?accountid=1557
Summary Discusses the problem that youth is the largest group at harm to become victim of sex-trafficking. Girls as young as 5 are lured into the commercial sex industry, 70% of women were lured in the prostitution business before age 18.
Human Sex Trafficking
MLA and Link Walker-Rodriguez, Amanda, and Rodney Hill. "Human Sex Trafficking." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 80.3 (2011): 1,1-9. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/856990689/1329EACEDCC5AAE047/8?accountid=1557
Summary States what sex trafficking is, and what it isn't. Gives information on the business of sex trafficking, what the federal level is doing about the problem, what different states are doing about the problem, and where to find sex trafficking businesses/ indicators that a women has been trafficked.
MLA and Link "Sexual Slavery." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_trafficking>.
Summary Basic information on sex trafficking. Wide range of topics that deal with sex trafficking: definition, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation of children, forced prostitution, crime against humanity, sexual slavery during armed conflict and war, contemporary and historical sexual slavery.
The first modern anti-slavery law: The Trafficking Victims Act of 2000
MLA and Link Ryf, Kara C. "The First Modern Anti-Slavery Law: The Trafficking Victims Act of 2000." Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 34.1 (2002): 45,45-71. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/211157724/1329EE28FE12230D1BE/1?accountid=1557
Summary Basic information on the Trafficking Victinms Protecion Act, as well as further knowledge on human trafficking. This article is an analysis of the act, so caution of bias from the author.
Who are the traffickers?
Cite and Link Who Are the Traffickers? | Freedom Blog." National Underground Railroad Freedom Center - Cincinnati, Ohio. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. <http://freedomcenter.org/freedom-forum/index.php/2010/02/data-human-trafficking/>.
Summary This article focuses on who participates in human trafficking, and what drives them.
Cite and Link "Keeping the Faith in Global Civil Society: Illiberal Democracy and the Cases of Reproductive Rights and Trafficking." University of Cincinnati, 2010. United States -- Ohio: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. <http://search.proquest.com/docview/89209045/abstract/1330ABEAFBB1C5ACE6B/1?accountid=1557>
Summary This dissertation gives the feminist perspective on human trafficking, giving a unique viewpoint in a common topic. It explains the ambiguity in human trafficking: sex trafficking versus labor trafficking. The lines are muddled, and therefore less is being done on the subject.
Conflicts Between Feminist Perceptions of Global Trafficking in Women
Cite and Link McCormick, Taryn. "Traffic Jam: Conflicts and Cooperation between Feminist Perceptions of Global Trafficking in Women." Simon Fraser University (Canada), 2002. Canada: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. <http://search.proquest.com/docview/305477204/1330AE59889C8C7342/1?accountid=1557>
Summary This essay gives another look at the conflicts that the feminist perspective has with the issue of human trafficking. It gives a background on the feminists' issues with other factors like pornography and other forms of prostitution.
Anti-Human Trafficking Stances
Cite and Link Hernandez, Marguerite. "Confronting Human Trafficking: Nongovernmental Organizations and the U.S. Anti-Human Trafficking Approach." The Ohio State University, 2010. United States -- Ohio: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. <http://search.proquest.com/docview/846020566/1330AE59889C8C7342/6?accountid=1557>
Summary This dissertation gives all the arguments currently developed in anti-human trafficking movements, as well as gives reasons for lack of human trafficking prevention progress: reasons why it is so difficult to stop and prosecute against, though efforts exist.