Music Education

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Music Education Sources

Argument Three

Importance of cultural context in teaching music

"Can't We Just Change the Words?" The Role of Authenticity in Culturally Informed Music Education

Lisa Huisman Koops. Music Educators Journal. Reston: Sep 2010. Vol. 97, Iss. 1; pg. 23, 7 pgs

Many curricular materials advocate careful attention to cultural context in order to present accurate musical practices, but teachers do not always have the time and resources, or perhaps even the desire, to follow recommendations for teaching music in context.1 However, teaching music without attention to its cultural context is a problem in several respects: it risks misrepresenting the musical practice being studied, it fails to take advantage of the potential benefits of culturally infused music teaching, and it promotes a conception of music as isolated sonic events rather than meaningful human practices.2 Discussion about this struggle to balance accurate performance practice with accessibility has focused on the concept of authenticity. According to Michael Largey, professor of ethnomusicology at Michigan State University, East Lansing, the term strategy implies both application and purpose: how authenticity is used and why it is important.

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The Value of culturally responsive ensembles

Engaging and Educating Students with Culturally Responsive Performing Ensembles Kevin Mixon. Music Educators Journal. Reston: Jun 2009. Vol. 95, Iss. 4; pg. 66, 9 pgs

In America's increasingly pluralistic society, almost half the students in public schools can be described as "minorities." Teaching this multicultural population calls for creativity on the part of music educators. Modifications to traditional ensembles, tapping into multiple cultural sources, increasing the variety of alternative ensembles, and being flexible in programming and scheduling can enhance student, parental, and community support of your music program. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

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Music Education and Learning

http://www.education.com/magazine/article/Can_Music_Help_Learn/

Some good quotes in this article from authoritative looking sources.


Unclassified ERIC sources

Record: 1

Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study. By: Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan. Australian Journal of Music Education, n1 p36-47 2010. (EJ912414) Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training program on verbal and visual memory across a two year period. Data from 142 participants were analysed: 82 (41 female (F), 41 male (M); mean age 8.62 years) allocated to the intensive strings music training program and 68 (37F, 31M; mean age 8.79 years) allocated to the control group (usual music classes). The Children's Memory Scale was used to test digit span, verbal learning and immediate and delayed verbal memory. Immediate visual recall was tested using the Benton Visual Designs test. Mixed model ANOVAs revealed that students receiving the intensive music training program exhibited significantly better learning and immediate recall for verbal information, after approximately one year, but not two years, after implementation of the program than did controls. No such benefit was observed following one year of a similarly novel juggling program in a sub-set of the sample. As anticipated, the intensive music training had no effect on visual memory, although an improvement in visual perceptual ability and digit span recall was observed in the first year also. The current findings have implications for educational programs (such as literacy training) which may benefit from transient improvements in verbal memory. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.) Full Text from ERIC Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ912414&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ912414&site=ehost-live">Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study</A> Database: ERIC


Record: 2

Does Music Instruction Help Children Learn to Read?: Evidence of a Meta-Analysis. By: Standley, Jayne M.. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, v27 n1 p17-32 2008. (EJ811673) This meta-analysis of 30 studies using a variety of music interventions to affect reading skills resulted in a moderately strong, significant, overall effect size of d = 0.32. When music activities incorporate specific reading skills matched to the needs of identified children (d = 0.44) or contingent music is used to reinforce reading behavior (d = 0.66), benefits are large. The music activities that pair alphabet recognition with phonetic patterns, incorporate word segmentation and sound blending skills, and promote rapid decoding skills are effective in enhancing reading instruction and require little transfer to the assessment methodology. Benefits are greater when the special music reading activities are added to an existing music education curriculum than when replacing it. All schedules of intervention are equally effective regardless of whether daily, intense, short-term, or weekly periodic intervention spread across the school year. (Contains 3 tables.) Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ811673&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ811673&site=ehost-live">Does Music Instruction Help Children Learn to Read?: Evidence of a Meta-Analysis</A> Database: ERIC Full Text Database:

Record: 3

Effects of Phonological and Musical Training on the Reading Readiness of Native- and Foreign-Spanish-Speaking Children. By: Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia. Psychology of Music, v39 n1 p68-81 Jan 2011. (EJ908940) The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study showed that the children who received phonological training with or without music performed significantly better in a naming speed posttest and a series of phonological processing tasks than those who did not participate in specialized training. The phonological training that included music activities was particularly effective for the development of phonological awareness of ending sounds and naming speed. The benefits of the training on children's phonological awareness and naming speed, two strong predictors of reading acquisition, were significant regardless of the native language of the children. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.) Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ908940&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ908940&site=ehost-live">Effects of Phonological and Musical Training on the Reading Readiness of Native- and Foreign-Spanish-Speaking Children</A> Database: ERIC

Record: 4

Music and Spatial Task Performance: A Causal Relationship.. By: Rauscher, Frances H.; And Others. 1994 26 pp. (ED390733) This research paper reports on testing the hypothesis that music and spatial task performance are causally related. Two complementary studies are presented that replicate and explore previous findings. One study of college students showed that listening to a Mozart sonata induces subsequent short-term spatial reasoning facilitation and tested the effects of highly repetitive music on spatial reasoning. The second study extends the findings of a preliminary pilot study of 1993 which suggested that music training of three-year-olds provides long-term enhancements of nonverbal cognitive abilities already present at significant levels in infants. The paper concludes with a discussion of the scientific and educational implications, further controls, and future research objectives. Contains 10 references. (EH) Full Text from ERIC Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED390733&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED390733&site=ehost-live">Music and Spatial Task Performance: A Causal Relationship.</A> Database: ERIC

Record: 5

Music in the Classroom: Its Influence on Children's Brain Development, Academic Performance, and Practical Life Skills.. By: Yoon, Jenny Nam. 2000 42 pp. (ED442707) A growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance. Research indicates that music plays an important role in the brain development of a child. Furthermore, researchers believe that children who have more exposure to music and music training benefit from enhanced brain activity which has been shown to increase students' abilities to perform certain academic tasks. In addition, many practical life skills are acquired through music learning and music training. Music education is believed to deserve the status as an equally significant core subject. A review of the literature demonstrates the benefits of music education, discussing the influence of music on the child's brain development, academic performance, and practical life skills. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/BT) Full Text from ERIC Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED442707&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED442707&site=ehost-live">Music in the Classroom: Its Influence on Children's Brain Development, Academic Performance, and Practical Life Skills.</A> Database: ERIC


Record: 6

The Cognitive and Academic Benefits of Music to Children: Facts and Fiction. By: Crncec, Rudi; Wilson, Sarah J.; Prior, Margot. Educational Psychology, v26 n4 p579-594 Aug 2006. (EJ740733) There is considerable interest in the potential non-musical cognitive and academic benefits of music listening and instruction to children. This report describes three lines of research relevant to this issue, namely, the effects of: (1) focused music listening on subsequent task performance (the Mozart effect); (2) music instruction; and (3) background music listening. Research suggests that while Mozart effect studies have attracted considerable media attention, the effect cannot be reliably demonstrated in children. In contrast, music instruction confers consistent benefits for spatiotemporal reasoning skills; however, improvements in associated academic domains, such as arithmetic, have not been reliably shown. Finally, background music may calm and focus children with special education needs, thereby enhancing learning. Additional research is required to determine whether this effect is evident in normal populations. Overall, evidence for the non-musical benefits of music listening and instruction is limited. The inherent value of music and music education should not be overlooked by narrowly focusing on cognitive and academic outcomes. Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ740733&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ740733&site=ehost-live">The Cognitive and Academic Benefits of Music to Children: Facts and Fiction</A> Database: ERIC Full Text Database:


Record: 7

The Extramusical Effects of Music Lessons on Preschoolers. By: deVries, Peter. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, v29 n2 p6-10 Jun 2004. (EJ851688) The aim of the present study was to investigate the extramusical effects of a music education program in one preschool classroom over a period of six weeks. The class had not previously been exposed to regular music lessons. Readily available teaching resources containing sound recordings were used. Analysis revealed six themes that addressed the extramusical effect of music lessons: (1) involvement in music activities allowed children to release energy; (2) engagement in music-movement activities developed motor skills in children; (3) a variety of music activities promoted opportunities for student socialisation; (4) music activities provided opportunities for children to express themselves; (5) music contributed to sociodramatic play; and (6) music listening activities focused children's listening skills. Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ851688&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ851688&site=ehost-live">The Extramusical Effects of Music Lessons on Preschoolers</A> Database: ERIC


Record: 8

The Power of Music: The Use of Music Protocols to Enhance Neurological Function. By: Summa-Chadwick, Martha. Exceptional Parent, v39 n7 p38-42 Jul 2009. (EJ868570) Discoveries, reached through scientific and technological advances in the evidence-based empirical domain, about how the body physiologically responds to music have opened new possibilities for developing therapeutic archetypes to actively channel specific aspects of music to assist in the learning processes of children with special needs. The resulting protocols actively engage the brain by using rhythmic entrainment and can have positive outcomes when actively treating issues related to motor, speech/language, and cognition. Music and the temporal structure can evoke consistent response in the body and can therefore be used to intentionally direct therapeutic changes. This article presents techniques and protocols used in therapy sessions that are described as rhythmic entrainment for therapeutic purposes and were developed and researched at the Center for Biomedical Research (CBRM) at Colorado State University; they are defined as techniques which utilize the therapeutic application of music to cognitive, sensory, and motor dysfunction due to neurological disorder or disease. All protocols are based on a neuroscience model of music perception and the influence of music on functional changes in nonmusical brain and behavior functions. Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ868570&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ868570&site=ehost-live">The Power of Music: The Use of Music Protocols to Enhance Neurological Function</A> Database: ERIC


Record: 9

Window of Opportunity? Adolescence, Music, and Algebra. By: Helmrich, Barbara H.. Journal of Adolescent Research, v25 n4 p557-577 2010. (EJ885959) Research has suggested that musicians process music in the same cortical regions that adolescents process algebra. An early adolescence synaptogenesis might present a window of opportunity during middle school for music to create and strengthen enduring neural connections in those regions. Six school districts across Maryland provided scores from the 2006-2007 administrations of the Maryland Algebra/Data Analysis High School Assessment. Findings from a sample of 6,026 adolescents showed that students enrolled in formal instrumental or choral music instruction during middle school outperformed those who experienced neither of those modes of musical instruction. Significant mean differences in algebra achievement occurred between the instrumental and neither-instruction groups (13.34, p less than 0.001) and between the choral and neither-instruction groups (3.82, p less than 0.001). For African Americans, means significantly differed between the choral and neither-instruction groups (9.39, p less than 0.001). The greatest mean difference between any two comparison groups occurred between the instrumental and neither-instruction groups of African Americans (18.87, p less than 0.001). (Contains 3 tables.) Persistent link to this record (Permalink): http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ885959&site=ehost-live Cut and Paste: <A href="http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ885959&site=ehost-live">Window of Opportunity? Adolescence, Music, and Algebra</A> Database: ERIC